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FTY720, a sphingosine-derived immunomodulator, causes immunosuppression via enhancement of lymphocyte sequestration into secondary lymphoid organs, thereby preventing their antigen-activated T cell egress to sites of inflammation. FTY720 is highly effective in inhibiting autoimmunity in various animal models. However, there is little known about how FTY720(More)
A NKT cell repertoire is characterized by the expression of the Valpha19-Jalpha26 invariant TCR alpha chain (Valpha19 NKT cell). This repertoire, as well as a well-established Valpha14-Jalpha281 invariant TCR alpha(+) NKT cell subset (Valpha14 NKT cell), has been suggested to have important roles in the regulation of the immune system and, thus, is a major(More)
Sympathetic innervation to the melanophores of a siluroidParasilurus has been the sole instance of such innervation among lower vertebrates, in which the peripheral transmission to the effector cells is peculiarly cholinergic (Fujii andMiyashita, 1976). In an effort to find a similar case, we studied the nature of transmission to melanophores of a glass(More)
Although lactic acid bacteria (LAB) affect the immune system, for example, having an anti-allergic effect, little is known about the actual mechanisms of immune modulation. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize conserved microbial molecular patterns, and are presumed to be involved in the recognition of LAB. However, there are few detailed reports examining(More)
Naturally arising CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T (T(R)) cells are engaged in the maintenance of self tolerance and prevention of autoimmune diseases. However, accumulating evidence suggests that a fraction of peripheral CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells also possesses regulatory activity. Programmed death-1 (PD-1) is a new member of the CD28/CTLA-4 family, which has been(More)
Splenic white pulp of the Aleutian skate (Bathyraja aleutica), an elasmobranch, was investigated using light and transmission electron microscopy. The major cellular constituent was plasma cells, of the typical Marshalko type, characterized by well developed rough-endoplasmic reticulum and a Golgi complex. The morphology of the rough-endoplasmic reticulum(More)
It is well known that some strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can induce IL-12 which plays an important role in modulating immune responses. However, the mechanisms by which LAB induce IL-12 production remain unclear. Here, we examine the role of toll-like receptors (TLR's) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in IL-12 production by LAB stimulated(More)
BACKGROUND Crohn's disease (CD) is an inflammatory bowel disease that is associated with several changes in the immune system, including an increased number of infiltrating macrophages. These macrophages release a variety of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) which are critically involved in the onset and the(More)
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are popularly used as probiotics, and some strains of LAB have anti-allergic functions in vivo. Although in vitro studies show that LAB modulate the T helper type (Th) 1/Th2 balance and inhibit IgE secretion by inducing IL-12, it is not known how LAB regulates allergies in vivo. In this study, we evaluated in vivo IL-12 production(More)
Naturally arising CD4+CD25+ regulatory T (T(R)) cells have been shown to prevent and cure murine T cell-mediated colitis. However, their exact mechanism of controlling colitogenic memory CD4+ T cells in in vivo systems excluding the initial process of naive T cell activation and differentiation has not been examined to date. Using the colitogenic effector(More)