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The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus is a dominant circadian pacemaker in the mammalian brain controlling the rest-activity cycle and a series of physiological and endocrine functions to provide a foundation for the successful elaboration of adaptive sleep and waking behavior. The SCN is anatomically and functionally organized into two(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Mononuclear phagocytes are highly plastic cells that assume diverse phenotypes in response to microenvironmental signals. The phenotype-specific roles of microglia/macrophages in ischemic brain injury are poorly understood. A comprehensive characterization of microglia/macrophage polarization after ischemia may advance our knowledge(More)
The mammalian circadian pacemaker, the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), has two subdivisions. The core is located above the optic chiasm, receives primary and secondary visual afferents, and contains neurons producing vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and gastrin-releasing peptide. The shell largely surrounds the core, receives input from(More)
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) temporally organizes behavior in part by sustaining arousal during the wake period of the sleep/wake cycle to consolidate adaptive waking behavior. In this study, we demonstrate direct projections from the SCN, in both the rat and the human brains, to perikarya and proximal dendrites of two groups of posterior hypothalamic(More)
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus, the principal circadian pacemaker, is a paired structure with two subdivisions, a ventral core receiving photic input and a dorsal shell receiving non-photic input. Rhythmicity is thought to be generated by individual SCN neurons which are coupled to achieve synchrony [D.K. Welsh, D.E. Logothetis, M.(More)
The traditional view of the adult brain as a static organ has changed in the past three decades, with the emergence of evidence that it remains plastic and has some regenerative capacity after injury. In the injured brain, microglia and macrophages clear cellular debris and orchestrate neuronal restorative processes. However, activation of these cells can(More)
Phase II metabolic enzymes are a battery of critical proteins that detoxify xenobiotics by increasing their hydrophilicity and enhancing their disposal. These enzymes have long been studied for their preventative and protective effects against mutagens and carcinogens and for their regulation via the Keap1 (Kelch-like ECH associated protein 1)/Nrf2 (Nuclear(More)
Although the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) have been intensively analyzed, they contain a population of cells that has not yet been characterized. In this study, we examined the distribution of cells immunoreactive (ir) for calbindin-D28K (CaBP), calretinin (CR), parvalbumin, vasopressin-associated neurophysin (NP), substance P (SP), vasoactive intestinal(More)
Preconditioning is a phenomenon in which brief episodes of a sublethal insult induce robust protection against subsequent lethal injuries. Preconditioning has been observed in multiple organisms and can occur in the brain as well as other tissues. Extensive animal studies suggest that the brain can be preconditioned to resist acute injuries, such as(More)
Uptake through the dopamine transporter (DAT) represents the primary mechanism used to terminate dopaminergic transmission in brain. Although it is well known that dopamine (DA) taken up by the transporter is used to replenish synaptic vesicle stores for subsequent release, the molecular details of this mechanism are not completely understood. Here, we(More)