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Homeobox genes encode important developmental control proteins. The Drosophila fruit fly HOM complex genes are clustered in region 84-89 of chromosome 3. Probably due to large-scale genome duplication events, their human HOX orthologs belong to four paralogous regions. A series of 13 other homeobox genes are also clustered in region 88-94, on the same(More)
UNLABELLED Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of both community- and hospital-acquired infections that are increasingly antibiotic resistant. The emergence of S. aureus resistance to even last-line antibiotics heightens the need for the development of new drugs with novel targets. We generated a highly saturated transposon insertion mutant library in(More)
It is proposed that proteins can bind with relatively low-affinity and specificity to multiple sites, defined as sequence motifs, on polynucleotide chains, and that such binding can collectively be turned into high-affinity, high-specificity binding through cooperative effects, especially when the sequence motifs recur periodically. The selection of(More)
BACKGROUND  Staphylococcus aureus colonizes skin in the presence of antimicrobial fatty acids and polyamines. The chromosomally encoded Tet38 efflux transporter confers resistance to tetracycline and fitness in abscesses, but its natural substrates and those of the Nor quinolone efflux pumps are unknown. METHODS  Susceptibility of tet38 and other pump(More)
The ATP-dependent transporter gene abcA in Staphylococcus aureus confers resistance to hydrophobic β-lactams. In strain ISP794, abcA is regulated by the transcriptional regulators MgrA and NorG and shares a 420-nucleotide intercistronic region with the divergently transcribed pbp4 gene, which encodes the transpeptidase Pbp4. Exposure of exponentially(More)
Cochlin, an extracellular matrix protein, shares homologies with the Factor C, a serine protease found in horseshoe crabs, which is critical for antibacterial responses. Mutations in the COCH gene are responsible for human DFNA9 syndrome, a disorder characterized by neurodegeneration of the inner ear that leads to hearing loss and vestibular impairments.(More)
Acquisition of resistance to the two classes of antibiotics therapeutically used against Gram-positive bacteria, the glycopeptides and the beta-lactams, has revealed an unexpected flexibility in the peptidoglycan assembly pathway. Glycopeptides select for diversification of the fifth position of stem pentapeptides because replacement of D-Ala by D-lactate(More)
Intensive use of antimicrobial agents in health care settings not only leads to the selection of multiresistant nosocomial isolates of Staphylococcus aureus but may also promote endogenous, resistance-conferring mutations in bacterial genes that encode drug targets. We evaluated the spectrum of rifampin resistance-conferring mutations in cultures of(More)
We previously showed that at acid pH, the transcription of norB, encoding the NorB efflux pump, increases due to a reduction in the phosphorylation level of MgrA, which in turn leads to a reduction in bacterial killing by moxifloxacin, a substrate of the NorB efflux pump. In this study, we demonstrated that reduced oxygen levels did not affect the(More)
Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive pathogen with an unusual mode of cell division in that it divides in orthogonal rather than parallel planes. Through selection using moenomycin, an antibiotic proposed to target peptidoglycan glycosyltransferases (PGTs), we have generated resistant mutants containing a single point mutation in the active site of the(More)