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A mutualistic association between a fungal endophyte and a tropical panic grass allows both organisms to grow at high soil temperatures. We characterized a virus from this fungus that is involved in the mutualistic interaction. Fungal isolates cured of the virus are unable to confer heat tolerance, but heat tolerance is restored after the virus is(More)
1. It has been suggested that ATP is released together with the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) and, after hydrolysis to adenosine, is the primary physiological mediator of prejunctional neuromuscular depression. To evaluate whether ATP is released with sufficient rapidity to mediate prejunctional depression, outside-out patches containing both(More)
All plants in natural ecosystems are thought to be symbiotic with mycorrhizal and/or endophytic fungi. Collectively, these fungi express different symbiotic lifestyles ranging from parasitism to mutualism. Analysis of Colletotrichum species indicates that individual isolates can express either parasitic or mutualistic lifestyles depending on the host(More)
1. Phorbol esters activate protein kinase C (PKC) and also increase the secretion of neurotransmitter substances by an unknown mechanism. To evaluate whether the stimulatory effects of such agents on acetylcholine (ACh) secretion occur as a consequence of stimulation of Ca2+ entry, we made electrophysiological measurements of ACh secretion (i.e. endplate(More)
Climate change and catastrophic events have contributed to rice shortages in several regions due to decreased water availability and soil salinization. Although not adapted to salt or drought stress, two commercial rice varieties achieved tolerance to these stresses by colonizing them with Class 2 fungal endophytes isolated from plants growing across(More)
The major salivary glands of mammals are represented by three pairs of organs that cooperate functionally to produce saliva for the oral cavity. While each type of gland produces a signature secretion that complements the secretions from the other glands, there is also redundancy as evidenced by secretion of functionally similar and, in some cases,(More)
1. The hypothesis that ATP released by presynaptic stimulation is hydrolysed to adenosine and mediates prejunctional neuromuscular depression was tested at vertebrate neuromuscular junctions. Electrophysiological recordings of evoked acetylcholine (ACh) release and perineural ionic currents at motor nerve endings were made using the frog cutaneous pectoris(More)
1. The interaction of ion channels activated by nicotinic receptor agonists with ion channels gated by extracellular ATP (i.e. P2X receptors) was studied on sympathetic neurons acutely dissociated from coeliac ganglia of the guinea-pig. Patch clamp methods were used to measure the inward current generated through these non-selective cationic channels under(More)
All plants studied in natural ecosystems are symbiotic with fungi (1), which obtain nutrients while either positively, negatively, or neutrally affecting host fitness (2). Plant adaptation to selective pressures is considered to be regulated by the plant genome (3). To test whether mutualistic fungi contribute to plant adaptation, we collected 200(More)
The effect of 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX), a selective A1 adenosine receptor antagonist, was studied at frog motor nerve endings in the hope of determining whether the inhibitory effects of exogenous or endogenous adenosine on neurotransmitter release are mediated by an A1 receptor or the postulated prejunctional "A3 receptor." These putative(More)