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This review encompasses the most important advances in liver functions and hepatotoxicity and analyzes which mechanisms can be studied in vitro. In a complex architecture of nested, zonated lobules, the liver consists of approximately 80 % hepatocytes and 20 % non-parenchymal cells, the latter being involved in a secondary phase that may dramatically(More)
A long-term goal of numerous research projects is to identify biomarkers for in vitro systems predicting toxicity in vivo. Often, transcriptomics data are used to identify candidates for further evaluation. However, a systematic directory summarizing key features of chemically influenced genes in human hepatocytes is not yet available. To bridge this gap,(More)
Cultivated hepatocytes represent a well-established in vitro system. However, the applicability of hepatocytes in toxicogenomics is still controversially discussed. Recently, an in vivo/in vitro discrepancy has been described, whereby the non-genotoxic rat liver carcinogen methapyrilene alters the expression of the metabolizing genes SULT1A1 and ABAT, as(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS The differentiation of stem cells to hepatocyte-like cells (HLC) offers the perspective of unlimited supply of human hepatocytes. However, the degree of differentiation of HLC remains controversial. To obtain an unbiased characterization, we performed a transcriptomic study with HLC derived from human embryonic and induced stem cells (ESC,(More)
Test systems to identify developmental toxicants are urgently needed. A combination of human stem cell technology and transcriptome analysis was to provide a proof of concept that toxicants with a related mode of action can be identified and grouped for read-across. We chose a test system of developmental toxicity, related to the generation of neuroectoderm(More)
It is well known that isolation and cultivation of primary hepatocytes cause major gene expression alterations. In the present genome-wide, time-resolved study of cultivated human and mouse hepatocytes, we made the observation that expression changes in culture strongly resemble alterations in liver diseases. Hepatocytes of both species were cultivated in(More)
Currently, much effort is invested in the development and optimization of in vitro systems for toxicity testing (Godoy et al. However, one major problem in this field of research is the difficulty to link observations made in vitro to adverse effects in vivo (Ghallab, 2013; Bolt, 2013). To come closer to a solution of this fundamental problem , Waldmann et(More)
In vitro genotoxicity tests are known to suffer from several shortcomings, mammalian cell-based assays, in particular, from low specificities. Following a novel concept of genotoxicity detection, we developed a fluorescence-based method in living human cells. The assay quantifies DNA recombination events triggered by DNA double-strand breaks and(More)
The piperazine derivatives most frequently consumed for recreational purposes are 1-benzylpiperazine, 1-(3,4-methylenedioxybenzyl) piperazine, 1-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl) piperazine and 1-(4-methoxyphenyl) piperazine. Generally, they are consumed as capsules, tablets or pills but also in powder or liquid forms. Currently, the precise mechanism by which(More)
Transcriptomics is a powerful tool for high-throughput gene expression profiling. Transcriptome microarray experiments conducted with RNA isolated from hepatocytes after exposure to toxicants enable a deep insight into the molecular mechanisms of hepatotoxicity. This understanding, along with structure-activity relationships underlying hepatotoxicity, will(More)