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The authors briefly review the current potential and limitations of molecular epidemiology. This approach uses biomarkers to measure the internal and bioeffective dose of toxicants, early biologic effects likely to be predictive of cancer, and variations in individual susceptibility. The most frequent application of biomarkers has been in assessment of(More)
CONTEXT Secondary analyses of 2 randomized controlled trials and supportive epidemiologic and preclinical data indicated the potential of selenium and vitamin E for preventing prostate cancer. OBJECTIVE To determine whether selenium, vitamin E, or both could prevent prostate cancer and other diseases with little or no toxicity in relatively healthy men.(More)
INTRODUCTION The etiology of familial breast cancer is complex and involves genetic and environmental factors such as hormonal and lifestyle factors. Understanding familial aggregation is a key to understanding the causes of breast cancer and to facilitating the development of effective prevention and therapy. To address urgent research questions and to(More)
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are potent mammary carcinogens in rodents, but their effect on breast cancer development in women is not clear. To examine whether currently measurable PAH damage to DNA increases breast cancer risk, a population-based case-control study was undertaken on Long Island, NY. Cases were women newly diagnosed with in situ(More)
Choline is an essential nutrient required for methyl group metabolism, but its role in carcinogenesis and tumor progression is not well understood. By utilizing a population-based study of 1508 cases and 1556 controls, we investigated the associations of dietary intake of choline and two related micronutrients, methionine and betaine, and risk of breast(More)
BACKGROUND Promoter hypermethylation and global hypomethylation in the human genome are hallmarks of most cancers. Detection of aberrant methylation in white blood cells (WBC) has been suggested as a marker for cancer development, but has not been extensively investigated. This study was carried out to determine whether aberrant methylation in WBC DNA can(More)
PURPOSE Most hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) are diagnosed at an advanced stage. Hypermethylation of CpG islands in promoter regions is now recognized as an important early event in carcinogenesis and detection of methylated DNA has been suggested as a potential biomarker for early detection of cancer. There are no studies on epigenetic changes in samples(More)
Reduced levels of global DNA methylation are associated with genomic instability and are independent predictors of cancer risk. Little is known about the environmental determinants of global DNA methylation in peripheral blood. We examined the association between demographic and lifestyle factors and levels of global leukocyte DNA methylation in 161(More)
One plausible mechanism for the environment to alter cancer susceptibility is through DNA methylation. Alterations in DNA methylation can lead to genomic instability and altered gene transcription. Genomic DNA methylation levels have been inversely associated with age, suggesting that factors throughout life may be associated with declines in DNA(More)
Accumulating evidence from epidemiologic studies suggests that risk of breast cancer is reduced in relation to increased consumption of folate and related B vitamins. We investigated independent and joint effects of B vitamin intake as well as two polymorphisms of a key one-carbon metabolizing gene [i.e., methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C>T(More)