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We examined how wide ranges in levels of risk factors for cerebrovascular disease are associated with thickness of the human cerebral cortex in 115 individuals ages 43-83 with no cerebrovascular or neurologic history. Cerebrovascular risk factors included blood pressure, cholesterol, body mass index, creatinine, and diabetes-related factors. Variables were(More)
BACKGROUND Adverse effects of anticholinergic medications may contribute to events such as falls, delirium, and cognitive impairment in older patients. To further assess this risk, we developed the Anticholinergic Risk Scale (ARS), a ranked categorical list of commonly prescribed medications with anticholinergic potential. The objective of this study was to(More)
Cerebral white matter damage is not only a commonly reported consequence of healthy aging, but is also associated with cognitive decline and dementia. The aetiology of this damage is unclear; however, individuals with hypertension have a greater burden of white matter signal abnormalities (WMSA) on MR imaging than those without hypertension. It is therefore(More)
Evidence has shown that alcoholism leads to volume reductions in brain regions critical for associative learning using the eyeblink classical conditioning paradigm (EBCC). Evidence indicates that cerebellar shrinkage causes impairment in simple forms of EBCC, whereas changes in forebrain structures result in impairment in more complex tasks. In this study,(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic misuse of alcohol results in widespread damage to the brain. Prior morphometric studies have examined cortical atrophy in individuals with alcoholism; however, no previous studies have examined alcohol-associated atrophy using cortical thickness measurements to obtain regional mapping of tissue loss across the full cortical surface. (More)
White matter lesions, typically manifesting as regions of signal intensity abnormality (WMSA) on MRI, increase in frequency with age. However, the role of this damage in cognitive decline and disease is still not clear, as lesion volume has only loosely been associated with clinical status. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been used to examine the(More)
Although there is emerging data on the effects of blast-related concussion (or mTBI) on cognition, the effects of blast exposure itself on the brain have only recently been explored. Toward this end, we examine functional connectivity to the posterior cingulate cortex, a primary region within the default mode network (DMN), in a cohort of 134 Iraq and(More)
Post-operative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a decline in cognitive function from pre-operative levels, which has been frequently described after cardiac surgery. The purpose of this study was to examine the variability in the measurement and definitions for POCD using the framework of a 1995 Consensus Statement on measurement of POCD. Electronic medical(More)
Prior research has demonstrated links among vascular health and the occurrence of stroke, mild cognitive decline, and dementia in older adults. However, little is known about whether normal variation in vascular indicators may be related to changes in neural tissue integrity. Even less is known about how the brain is affected by cholesterol levels in the(More)
The remediative effect of galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) was investigated in a patient who, following right hemisphere damage, is profoundly unable to recognize faces. We administered a two-alternative forced choice match-to-sample task in which the patient had to choose which of two faces matched a sample face presented directly above, while(More)