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A new software system called PHENIX (Python-based Hierarchical ENvironment for Integrated Xtallography) is being developed for the automation of crystallographic structure solution. This will provide the necessary algorithms to proceed from reduced intensity data to a refined molecular model, and facilitate structure solution for both the novice and expert(More)
The duplicated and the highly repetitive nature of the maize genome has historically impeded the development of true single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in this crop. Recent advances in genome complexity reduction methods coupled with sequencing-by-synthesis technologies permit the implementation of efficient genome-wide SNP discovery in maize. In(More)
Bacillus thuringiensis strains are well known for the production of insecticidal proteins upon sporulation and these proteins are deposited in parasporal crystalline inclusions. The majority of these insect-specific toxins exhibit three domains in the mature toxin sequence. However, other Cry toxins are structurally and evolutionarily unrelated to this(More)
X-ray crystallography is the most widely used method for determining the three-dimensional structures of proteins and other macromolecules. One of the most difficult steps in crystallography is interpreting the 3D image of the electron density cloud surrounding the protein. This is often done manually by crystallographers and is very time-consuming and(More)
This paper reports on TEXTAL™, a deployed application that uses a variety of AI techniques to automate the process of determining the 3D structure of proteins by x-ray crystallography. The TEXTAL™ project was initiated in 1998, and the application is currently deployed in three ways: (1) a web-based interface called WebTex, operational since June 2002; (2)(More)
Non-crystallographic symmetry (NCS) averaging is a well known method for improving the quality of an electron-density map and thus aiding structure determination. Prior methods of NCS-operator determination based on estimated heavy-atom positions are prone to errors arising from inaccuracies in these coordinates or differences in the relative orientations(More)
X-ray crystallography is the most widely used method for determining the three-dimensional structures of proteins and other macromolecules. One of the most difficult steps in crystallography is interpreting the 3D image of the electron density cloud surrounding the protein. This is often done manually by crystallographers and is very time-consuming and(More)
TEXTAL is a computer program that automatically-interprets electron density maps to determine the atomic structures of proteins through X-ray crystallography. Electron density maps are traditionally interpreted by visually fitting atoms into density patterns. This manual process can be time-consuming and error prone, even for expert crystallo-graphers.(More)
UNLABELLED X-ray crystallography is the most widely used method to determine the 3D structure of protein molecules. One of the most difficult steps in protein crystallography is model-building, which consists of constructing a backbone and then amino acid side chains into an electron density map. Interpretation of electron density maps represents a major(More)