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Intercellular signaling molecules and their receptors, whose expression must be tightly regulated in time and space, coordinate organogenesis. Regulators of intracellular signaling pathways provide an additional level of control. Here we report that loss of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) antagonist, Sprouty1 (Spry1), causes defects in kidney development(More)
While the genetic control of renal branching morphogenesis has been extensively described, the cellular basis of this process remains obscure. GDNF/RET signaling is required for ureter and kidney development, and cells lacking Ret are excluded from the tips of the branching ureteric bud in chimeric kidneys. Here, we find that this exclusion results from(More)
While GDNF signaling through the Ret receptor is critical for kidney development, its specific role in branching morphogenesis of the epithelial ureteric bud (UB) is unclear. Ret expression defines a population of UB "tip cells" distinct from cells of the tubular "trunks," but how these cells contribute to UB growth is unknown. We have used time-lapse(More)
Signaling by GDNF through the Ret receptor is required for normal growth of the ureteric bud during kidney development. However, the precise role of GDNF/Ret signaling in renal branching morphogenesis and the specific responses of ureteric bud cells to GDNF remain unclear. Recent studies have provided new insight into these issues. The localized expression(More)
Germline mutations of the breast cancer 1 (BRCA1) gene are a major cause of familial breast and ovarian cancer. The BRCA1 protein displays E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, and this enzymatic function is thought to be required for tumor suppression. To test this hypothesis, we generated mice that express an enzymatically defective Brca1. We found that this(More)
PURPOSE Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is associated with the breast ovarian cancer syndrome (BRCA1/BRCA2) mutations. It is unknown if this association is causal. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN This is a single-site study of patients who underwent surgical pancreatic tumor resection and self-identified as Ashkenazi Jewish. DNA from normal pancreatic tissue(More)
The neonatal Fc receptor, FcRn, transports immunoglobulin G (IgG) across intestinal epithelial cells of suckling rats and mice from the lumenal surface to the serosal surface. In cell culture models FcRn transports IgG bidirectionally, but there are differences in the mechanisms of transport in the two directions. We investigated the effects of mutations in(More)
Hereditary cases of breast and ovarian cancer are often attributed to germ-line mutations of the BRCA1 tumor suppressor gene. Although BRCA1 is involved in diverse cellular processes, its role in the maintenance of genomic integrity may be a key component of its tumor suppression activity. The protein encoded by BRCA1 interacts in vivo with the related(More)
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a lethal malignancy that resists current treatments. To test epigenetic therapy against this cancer, we used the DNA demethylating drug 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC) in an aggressive mouse model of stromal rich PDAC (KPC-Brca1 mice). In untreated tumors, we found globally decreased 5-methyl-cytosine (5-mC) in(More)
Mesenchymal-epithelial interactions are an important source of information for pattern formation during organogenesis. In the developing excretory system, one of the secreted mesenchymal factors thought to play a critical role in patterning the growth and branching of the epithelial ureteric bud is GDNF. We have tested the requirement for GDNF as a(More)