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BACKGROUND To maintain a high standard of patient care, it is essential to provide adequate pain management in patients who undergo nasal surgery. Levobupivacaine and ropivacaine are relatively new(More)
BACKGROUND Stimulation of various sites, from the nasal mucosa to the diaphragm, can evoke laryngospasm. To reduce airway reflexes, tracheal extubation should be performed while the patient is deeply(More)
BACKGROUND Fentanyl-induced cough is common but has not been viewed as a serious anesthetic problem. However, the cough may be explosive at times, may require immediate intervention, and may be(More)
BACKGROUND A critical point in craniotomy is during opening of the dura and the subsequent potential for cerebral edema. Use of desflurane in neurosurgery may be beneficial because it facilitates(More)