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We explore cellular and molecular mechanisms of nasal adjuvant of a combination of a plasmid encoding the Flt3 ligand cDNA (pFL) and CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODN). The double DNA adjuvant given with OVA maintained prolonged OVA-specific secretory IgA (S-IgA) Ab responses in external secretions for more than 25 weeks after the final immunization.(More)
Acute inflammatory stimuli elevate both the production of prostaglandins and the synthesis and activity of prostaglandin synthase/cyclooxygenase enzyme (COX) in murine peritoneal macrophages. Adrenalectomy also elevates prostaglandin production, COX synthesis and COX activity in these cells. We have utilized cDNA probes and antisera specific for the(More)
Precise immunological aspects of inflamed gingival mucosa remain to be elucidated in the murine experimental periodontitis model; therefore, we have characterized the mucosal immune cells in the inflamed gingiva of mice with alveolar bone reduction. Mice were orally infected with Porphyromonas gingivalis 15 times over 2 weeks. Gingival mononuclear cells(More)
Nitric oxide is a mediator of paracrine cell signalling. An inducible form of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is expressed in macrophages and in Swiss 3T3 cells. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) is a cytokine that modulates many cellular functions. We find that TGF-beta cannot induce iNOS mRNA expression, either in macrophage cell lines or in Swiss(More)
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), a potent cytokine, modulates a wide variety of biological responses. Among its actions, TGF-beta can augment prostaglandin synthesis in several cell types. Although TGF-beta alone has no effect on prostaglandin production in Swiss 3T3 cells, we find that TGF-beta augments the ability of tetradecanoyl phorbol(More)
Activated macrophages produce substantial quantities of paracrine mediators, including cytokines, nitric oxide, and prostaglandins. Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta) is a potent modulator of immune function. TGF-beta inhibits the cytotoxic activity of endotoxin/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophage cell lines and primary macrophage(More)
This study was designed to investigate whether secretory-IgA (S-IgA) Abs induced by a pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA)-based nasal vaccine are necessary for prevention of streptococcal colonization. Mice nasally immunized with PspA plus a plasmid expressing Flt3 ligand (pFL) cDNA as a mucosal adjuvant showed significantly higher levels of PspA-specific(More)
Since a combination of flt3 ligand plasmid (pFL) and CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN)(3) as a dendritic cell (DC)-targeting double mucosal adjuvant elicited ovalbumin-specific secretory IgA (S-IgA) antibody (Ab) responses, we examined whether this double adjuvant could induce influenza-specific protective immunity in aged mice. A double adjuvant plus(More)
To develop protective immune responses against mucosal pathogens, the delivery route and adjuvants for vaccination are important. The host, however, strives to maintain mucosal homeostasis by responding to mucosal antigens with tolerance, instead of immune activation. Thus, induction of mucosal immunity through vaccination is a rather difficult task, and(More)