Rebecca S. Arnold

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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated in some non-phagocytic cells are implicated in mitogenic signalling and cancer. Many cancer cells show increased production of ROS, and normal cells exposed to hydrogen peroxide or superoxide show increased proliferation and express growth-related genes. ROS are generated in response to growth factors, and may affect(More)
Insulin stimulation of target cells elicits a burst of H(2)O(2) that enhances tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor and its cellular substrate proteins as well as distal signaling events in the insulin action cascade. The molecular mechanism coupling the insulin receptor with the cellular oxidant-generating apparatus has not been elucidated.(More)
An anaerobic digester receiving food waste collected mainly from domestic kitchens was monitored over a period of 426 days. During this time information was gathered on the waste input material, the biogas production, and the digestate characteristics. A mass balance accounted for over 90% of the material entering the plant leaving as gaseous or digestate(More)
Nox1, a homologue of gp91phox, the catalytic moiety of the superoxide (O(2)(-))-generating NADPH oxidase of phagocytes, causes increased O(2)(-) generation, increased mitotic rate, cell transformation, and tumorigenicity when expressed in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. This study explores the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in regulating cell growth and(More)
The reactive oxygen-generating enzyme Nox1 transforms NIH 3T3 cells, rendering them highly tumorigenic and, as shown herein, also increases tumorigenicity of DU-145 prostate epithelial cells. Although Nox1 modestly stimulates cell division in both fibroblasts and epithelial cells, an increased mitogenic rate alone did not account fully for the marked(More)
OBJECTIVES To develop a serum-based assay to detect neutralizing antibodies to the xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) retrovirus and to use this assay with polymerase chain reaction and fluorescence in situ hybridization to identify patients with prostate cancer previously exposed to XMRV infection and those who carry XMRV viral sequences(More)
Phospholipase D (PLD) has been implicated in a variety of cellular processes including vesicular transport, the respiratory burst, and mitogenesis. PLD1, first cloned from human, is activated by small GTPases such as ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) and RhoA. Rodent PLD2, which is approximately 50% identical to PLD1 has recently been cloned from mouse embryo(More)
BACKGROUND Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are emerging as candidate mediators of growth and angiogenesis in cancer. Increased ROS often correlates with cell growth, e.g., Ras-transformed cells and cells treated with growth factors. While non-transformed cells respond to growth factors/cytokines with the regulated production of ROS, tumor cells in culture(More)
Melanoma is the cancer with the highest increase in incidence, and transformation of radial growth to vertical growth (i.e., noninvasive to invasive) melanoma is required for invasive disease and metastasis. We have previously shown that p42/p44 MAP kinase is activated in radial growth melanoma, suggesting that further signaling events are required for(More)
The impact of oxidative stress in human cancer has been extensively studied. It is accepted that elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) promote mutagenic DNA damage. Even with an extensive armament of cellular antioxidants and detoxification enzymes, alterations to DNA occur that initiate cellular transformation. Erythroid 2p45 (NF-E2)-related factor 2(More)