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Hansenula polymorpha has been grown in a methanol-limited continuous culture at a variety of dilution rates. Cell suspensions of the yeast grown at a dilution rate of 0.16 h-1 showed a maximal capacity to oxidize excess methanol (QmaxO2) which was 1.6 times higher than the rate required to sustain the growth rate (QO2). When the dilution rate was decreased(More)
The aglZ gene of Myxococcus xanthus was identified from a yeast two-hybrid assay in which MglA was used as bait. MglA is a 22-kDa cytoplasmic GTPase required for both adventurous and social gliding motility and sporulation. Genetic studies showed that aglZ is part of the A motility system, because disruption or deletion of aglZ abolished movement of(More)
We developed a procedure for isolating membrane vesicles from the homolactic fermentative bacterium Streptococcus cremoris. The membrane vesicles were shown to have a right-side-out orientation by freeze-etch electron microscopy and to be free of cytoplasmic constituents. The membrane vesicles retained their functional properties and accumulated the amino(More)
Recently an energy-recycling model was proposed that postulates the generation of an electrochemical gradient in fermentative bacteria by carrier-mediated excretion of metabolic end products in symport with protons. In this paper experimental support for this model is given. In batch cultures of Streptococcus cremoris with glucose as the sole energy source(More)
Streptococcus cremoris was grown in pH-regulated batch and continuous cultures with lactose as the energy source. During growth the magnitude and composition of the electrochemical proton gradient and the lactate concentration gradient were determined. The upper limit of the number of protons translocated with a lactate molecule during lactate excretion(More)
Metabolic energy in lactic streptococci can be generated by substrate level phosphorylation and by efflux of end-products in symport with protons. During growth on lactose or glucose Streptococcus cremoris maintains a high proton motive force and phosphate potential. Both energy intermediates dissipate rapidly when the energy supply stops. In the initial(More)
Cleared lysates of a proteolytic (Prt) strain and a naturally occurring non-proteolytic (Prt) variant of Streptococcus cremoris Wg2 contain equal amounts of covalently closed circular plasmid DNA. An analysis of this plasmid DNA by agarose gel electrophoresis revealed the presence of at least five different plasmid species in the Prt strain and only three(More)
Formaldehyde dehydrogenase and formate dehydrogenase were purified 45- and 16-fold, respectively, from Hansenula polymorpha grown on methanol. Formaldehyde dehydrogenase was strictly dependent on NAD and glutathione for activity. The Km values of the enzyme were found to be 0.18 mM for glutathione, 0.21 mM for formaldehyde and 0.15 mM for NAD. The enzyme(More)
Microbial growth is analyzed in terms of mosaic and phenomenological non-equilibrium thermodynamics. It turns out that already existing parameters devised to measure bacterial growth, such as YATP, mu, and Q substrate, have as thermodynamic equivalents flow ratio, output flow and input flow. With this characterisation it becomes possible to apply much of(More)