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Coingestion of protein with carbohydrate has been shown to enhance muscle recovery, particularly after intense bouts of exercise. However, performance benefits of ingesting a protein-carbohydrate drink during exercise remains unclear. Therefore, we used a systematic review with meta-analysis to examine the influence of protein ingestion during exercise on(More)
Despite the rapid growth of mass participation road cycling, little is known about the dietary, metabolic, and behavioral responses of ultraendurance cyclists. This investigation describes physiological responses, perceptual ratings, energy balance, and macronutrient intake of 42 men (mean ± SD; age, 38 ± 6 years; height, 179.7 ± 7.1 cm; body mass, 85.85 ±(More)
PURPOSE This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness (speed of cooling and survival rates) of cold water immersion (CWI) in the treatment of patients with exertional heat stroke (EHS). Secondly, this study aimed to compare cooling rates on the basis of gender, age, and initial rectal temperature (Tr). METHODS Eighteen years of finish line medical(More)
CONTEXT The Falmouth Road Race is unique because of the environmental conditions and relatively short distance, which allow runners to maintain a high intensity for the duration of the event. Therefore, the occurrence of exertional heat illnesses (EHIs), especially exertional heat stroke (EHS), is 10 times higher than in other races. OBJECTIVE To(More)
OBJECTIVE To present recommendations for the prevention and screening, recognition, and treatment of the most common conditions resulting in sudden death in organized sports. BACKGROUND Cardiac conditions, head injuries, neck injuries, exertional heat stroke, exertional sickling, asthma, and other factors (eg, lightning, diabetes) are the most common(More)
CONTEXT Authors of most field studies have not observed decrements in physiologic function and performance with increases in dehydration, although authors of well-controlled laboratory studies have consistently reported this relationship. Investigators in these field studies did not control exercise intensity, a known modulator of body core temperature. (More)
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of dehydration at a controlled relative intensity on physiological responses and trail running speed. Using a randomized, controlled crossover design in a field setting, 14 male and female competitive, endurance runners aged 30 ± 10.4 years completed 2 (hydrated [HY] and dehydrated [DHY]) submaximal(More)
CONTEXT Previous researchers have not investigated the thermoregulatory responses to multiple consecutive days of American football in adolescents. OBJECTIVE To examine the thermoregulatory and hydration responses of high school players during formal preseason football practices. DESIGN Observational study. SETTING Players practiced outdoors in late(More)
PURPOSE This study aimed to evaluate the effects of hypohydration and hyperthermia during exercise on movement technique and postural control. METHODS Twelve healthy men (age = 20 ± 2 yr, height = 182 ± 8 cm, mass = 74.0 ± 8.2 kg, V˙O2max = 57.0 ± 6.0 mL·kg·min; mean ± SD) completed four randomized test sessions: euhydrated temperate (EUT), euhydrated hot(More)
Caffeine (CAF) ingestion may enhance endurance exercise by lowering perceived exertion (RPE) and muscle pain. However, exercise in the heat may be detrimental to performance by increasing RPE and pain. The purpose of this study was to examine if caffeine affects pain and related perceptual responses differently in cool and hot ambient conditions. Eleven(More)