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Like other enveloped viruses, HIV-1 uses cellular machinery to bud from infected cells. We now show that Tsg101 protein, which functions in vacuolar protein sorting (Vps), is required for HIV-1 budding. The UEV domain of Tsg101 binds to an essential tetrapeptide (PTAP) motif within the p6 domain of the structural Gag protein and also to ubiquitin. Depletion(More)
Human Tsg101 plays key roles in HIV budding and in cellular vacuolar protein sorting (VPS). In performing these functions, Tsg101 binds both ubiquitin (Ub) and the PTAP tetrapeptide 'late domain' motif located within the viral Gag protein. These interactions are mediated by the N-terminal domain of Tsg101, which belongs to the catalytically inactive(More)
Surface plasmon resonance imaging systems, such as Flexchip from Biacore, are capable of monitoring hundreds of reaction spots simultaneously within a single flow cell. Interpreting the binding kinetics in a large-format flow cell presents a number of potential challenges, including accounting for mass transport effects and spot-to-spot sample depletion. We(More)
BACKGROUND [corrected] The Staphylococcus aureus collagen-binding protein Cna mediates bacterial adherence to collagen. The primary sequence of Cna has a non-repetitive collagen-binding A region, followed by the repetitive B region. The B region has one to four 23 kDa repeat units (B(1)-B(4)), depending on the strain of origin. The affinity of the A region(More)
The inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAP) are endogenous caspase inhibitors in the metazoan and characterized by the presence of baculoviral IAP repeats (BIR). X-linked IAP (XIAP) contains three BIR domains and directly inhibits effector caspases such as caspase-7 via a linker_BIR2 fragment and initiator caspases such as caspase-9 via the BIR3 domain. A(More)
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor (TRAF)-6 mediates Lys63-linked polyubiquitination for NF-kappaB activation via its N-terminal RING and zinc finger domains. Here we report the crystal structures of TRAF6 and its complex with the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2) Ubc13. The RING and zinc fingers of TRAF6 assume a rigid, elongated(More)
The number and diversity of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor applications continue to increase. Evolutions in instrument and sensor chip technology, experimental methodology, and data analysis are making it possible to examine a wider variety of biomolecular interactions in greater mechanistic detail. SPR biosensors are poised to make a significant(More)
In addition to caspase inhibition, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) induces NF-kappaB and MAP kinase activation during TGF-b and BMP receptor signaling and upon overexpression. Here we show that the BIR1 domain of XIAP, which has no previously ascribed function, directly interacts with TAB1 to induce NF-kappaB activation. TAB1 is an upstream adaptor(More)
Surface plasmon resonance biosensor technology was used to directly measure the binding interactions of small molecules to the ligand-binding domain of human estrogen receptor. In a screening mode, specific ligands of the receptor were easily discerned from nonligands. In a high-resolution mode, the association and dissociation phase binding responses were(More)
Biophysical fragment screening of a thermostabilized β1-adrenergic receptor (β1AR) using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) enabled the identification of moderate affinity, high ligand efficiency (LE) arylpiperazine hits 7 and 8. Subsequent hit to lead follow-up confirmed the activity of the chemotype, and a structure-based design approach using protein-ligand(More)