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Pervasive transcription of eukaryotic genomes generates a plethora of noncoding RNAs. In fission yeast, the heterochromatin factor Clr4/Suv39 methyltransferase facilitates RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated processing of centromeric transcripts into small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Clr4 also mediates degradation of antisense RNAs at euchromatic loci, but the(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW To provide an overview of the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) niche in the bone marrow. In addition to highlighting recent advances in the field, we will also discuss components of the niche that may contribute to the development of cancer, or cancer metastases to the bone. RECENT FINDINGS Much progress has been very recently made in the(More)
Microenvironmental signals can determine hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) fate choices both directly and through stimulation of niche cells. In the bone marrow, prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) is known to affect both osteoblasts and osteoclasts, whereas in vitro it expands HSCs and affects differentiation of hematopoietic progenitors. We hypothesized that in vivo(More)
Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) regulation is highly dependent on interactions with the marrow microenvironment. Controversy exists on N-cadherin's role in support of HSCs. Specifically, it is unknown whether microenvironmental N-cadherin is required for normal marrow microarchitecture and for hematopoiesis. To determine whether osteoblastic N-cadherin is(More)
The skeletal system, while characterized by a hard tissue component, is in fact an extraordinarily dynamic system, with disparate functions ranging from structural support, movement and locomotion and soft-organ protection, to the maintenance of calcium homeostasis. Amongst these functions, it has long been known that mammalian bones house definitive(More)
Stretch activation is important in the mechanical properties of vertebrate cardiac muscle and essential to the flight muscles of most insects. Despite decades of investigation, the underlying molecular mechanism of stretch activation is unknown. We investigated the role of recently observed connections between myosin and troponin, called "troponin bridges,"(More)
Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), which continuously maintain all mature blood cells, are regulated within the marrow microenvironment. We previously reported that pharmacologic treatment of naïve mice with prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) expands HSPCs. However, the cellular mechanisms mediating this expansion remain unknown. Here, we demonstrate(More)
Enucleation is the hallmark of erythropoiesis in mammals. Previously, we determined that yolk sac-derived primitive erythroblasts mature in the bloodstream and enucleate between embryonic day (E)14.5 and E16.5 of mouse gestation. While definitive erythroblasts enucleate by nuclear extrusion, generating reticulocytes and small, nucleated cells with a thin(More)
The importance of polyploidy as a genotoxic lesion is uncertain and there have been few publications and no reviews which have included data on spontaneous or induced polyploidy in routine genotoxicity screening. We have attempted to clarify some of the issues by reviewing the published literature and by reference to our historical data base for metaphase(More)
Increasingly, effective supervision has been found to be critical in the retention of child welfare workers. In 2006 the State of Missouri Children's Division implemented a supervisory strategic plan to concentrate on supervisory training and effectiveness, with the expectation that emphasis on supervision would improve the retention of frontline workers.(More)