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The class 4 P-type ATPases ("flippases") maintain membrane asymmetry by translocating phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine from the outer leaflet to the cytosolic leaflet of the plasma membrane. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, five related gene products (Dnf1, Dnf2, Dnf3, Drs2, and Neo1) are implicated in flipping of phosphatidylethanolamine,… (More)
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BACKGROUND Mixed cultures of different microbial species are increasingly being used to carry out a specific biochemical function in lieu of engineering a single microbe to do the same task. However, knowing how different species' metabolisms will integrate to reach a desired outcome is a difficult problem that has been studied in great detail using… (More)
Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) has emerged as a powerful technique enabling spatially defined imaging of metabolites within microbial biofilms. Here, we extend this approach to enable differentiation of newly synthesized versus pre‐existing metabolites across a co‐culture. This is accomplished by MS imaging two soil microbes, Shewanella oneidensis MR1 and… (More)