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BACKGROUND Evidence of a relationship between residential retail food environments and diet-related outcomes is inconsistent. One reason for this may be that food environments are typically defined in terms of the absolute number of particular store types in an area, whereas a measure of the relative number of healthy and unhealthy stores may be more(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe associations between demographic and individual and area-level socio-economic variables and restricted household food access due to lack of money, inability to lift groceries and lack of access to a car to do food shopping. DESIGN Multilevel study of three measures of restricted food access, i.e. running out of money to buy food,(More)
OBJECTIVES To examine whether area level socioeconomic disadvantage and social capital have different relations with women's and men's self rated health. METHODS The study used data from 15 112 respondents to the 1998 Tasmanian (Australia) healthy communities study (60% response rate) nested within 41 statistical local areas. Gender stratified analyses(More)
BACKGROUND While previous research on fast food access and purchasing has not found evidence of an association, these studies have had methodological problems including aggregation error, lack of specificity between the exposures and outcomes, and lack of adjustment for potential confounding. In this paper we attempt to address these methodological problems(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine associations between area and individual socio-economic characteristics and premature cancer mortality using multilevel analysis. METHODS We modeled cancer mortality among 25-64-year-old men and women (n = 16,340) between 1998 and 2000 in Australia. Socio-economic characteristics of Statistical Local Areas (n = 1,317) were measured(More)
BACKGROUND It has been suggested that those with lower socioeconomic characteristics would be more likely to seek energy-dense food options such as fast food because of cheaper prices; however, to date the evidence has been inconsistent. This study examines both individual- and area-level socioeconomic characteristics and their independent associations with(More)
AIMS To assess the association between access to off-premises alcohol outlets and harmful alcohol consumption. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS Multi-level study of 2334 adults aged 18-75 years from 49 census collector districts (the smallest spatial unit in Australia at the time of survey) in metropolitan Melbourne. MEASUREMENTS Alcohol outlet density(More)
OBJECTIVE This paper seeks to compare the relationships between social capital and health for rural and urban residents of South Australia. METHODS Using data from a South Australian telephone survey of 2,013 respondents (1,402 urban and 611 rural), separate path analyses for the rural and urban samples were used to compare the relationships between six(More)
Socio-economic gradients in cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes have been found throughout the developed world and there is some evidence to suggest that these gradients may be steeper for women. Research on social gradients in biological risk factors for CVD and diabetes has received less attention and we do not know the extent to which gradients in(More)
Evidence about the mental health consequences of unaffordable housing is limited. The authors investigated whether people whose housing costs were more than 30% of their household income experienced a deterioration in their mental health (using the Short Form 36 Mental Component Summary), over and above other forms of financial stress. They hypothesized(More)