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CONTEXT The risks of testosterone therapy in men remain poorly understood. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analyses of testosterone trials to evaluate the adverse effects of testosterone treatment in men. DATA SOURCES We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL from 2003 through August 2008. Review of(More)
CONTEXT Theory and simulation suggest that randomized controlled trials (RCTs) stopped early for benefit (truncated RCTs) systematically overestimate treatment effects for the outcome that precipitated early stopping. OBJECTIVE To compare the treatment effect from truncated RCTs with that from meta-analyses of RCTs addressing the same question but not(More)
The morbidity and mortality associated with the 1980 heat wave in St Louis and Kansas City, Mo, were assessed retrospectively. Heat-related illness and deaths were identified by review of death certificates and hospital, emergency room, and medical examiners' records in the two cities. Data from the July 1980 heat wave were compared with data from July 1978(More)
CONTEXT The diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome (CS) requires the use of tests of unregulated hypercortisolism that have unclear accuracy. OBJECTIVE Our objective was to summarize evidence on the accuracy of common tests for diagnosing CS. DATA SOURCES We searched electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, Scopus, and citation search for key(More)
CONTEXT Osteoporosis and osteopenia are associated with increased fracture incidence. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to determine the comparative effectiveness of different pharmacological agents in reducing the risk of fragility fractures. DATA SOURCES We searched multiple databases through 12/9/2011. STUDY SELECTION Eligible studies were(More)
CONTEXT Insulin sensitizers, including metformin and thiazolidinediones (TZDs), improve hyperinsulinemia and reproductive dysfunctions in some women with hyperandrogenism. The extent to which these agents improve hirsutism remains unclear. OBJECTIVE Our objective was to conduct a systematic review and metaanalyses of randomized controlled trials of(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe the process used to develop a medication choice decision aid (DA) for patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS We developed the DA through active collaboration with patients, clinicians, and designers, direct observations of clinical encounters, literature review, and collaborative development of design criteria. Insights from these(More)
CONTEXT The relative efficacy of antiandrogens for the treatment of hirsutism remains unclear. OBJECTIVE We performed a systematic review and metaanalyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effect of antiandrogens on hirsutism. DATA SOURCES We used librarian-designed search strategies for MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL (up to(More)
CONTEXT Several studies found association between vitamin D levels and hypertension, coronary artery calcification, and heart disease. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to summarize the evidence on the effect of vitamin D on cardiovascular outcomes. DESIGN AND METHODS We searched electronic databases from inception through August 2010 for randomized(More)
OBJECTIVES To investigate the associations between benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and polymorphisms in genes that encode growth factors, cytokines, and vitamin D and their receptors. METHODS A total of 510 white men (median age 60 years) randomly selected from the Olmsted County, Minnesota community participated in a study of BPH from 1990 to 2000.(More)