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Male reproductive success is an extremely variable fitness component. Understanding the maintenance of this variation is a key challenge in evolutionary biology. An often neglected source of variation in male reproductive success is determined by age-dependent patterns of decline in sperm fitness. Two pathways mediate sperm senescence: pre-meiotic(More)
In addition to initial sex determination, genes on the sex chromosomes are theorized to play a particularly important role in phenotypic differences between males and females. Sex chromosomes in many species display molecular signatures consistent with these theoretical predictions, particularly through sex-specific gene expression. However, the phenotypic(More)
Males and females share most of their genomes, and differences between the sexes can therefore not evolve through sequence divergence in protein coding genes. Sexual dimorphism is instead restricted to occur through sex-specific expression and splicing of gene products. Evolution of sexual dimorphism through these mechanisms should, however, also be(More)
Sex chromosomes can evolve once recombination is halted between a homologous pair of chromosomes. Owing to detailed studies using key model systems, we have a nuanced understanding and a rich review literature of what happens to sex chromosomes once recombination is arrested. However, three broad questions remain unanswered. First, why do sex chromosomes(More)
Mitochondrial interactions with the nuclear genome represent one of life's most important co-evolved mutualisms. In many organisms, mitochondria are maternally inherited, and in these cases, co-transmission between the mitochondrial and nuclear genes differs across different parts of the nuclear genome, with genes on the X chromosome having two-third(More)
Bateman's principles explain sex roles and sexual dimorphism through sex-specific variance in mating success, reproductive success and their relationships within sexes (Bateman gradients). Empirical tests of these principles, however, have come under intense scrutiny. Here, we experimentally show that in replicate groups of red junglefowl, Gallus gallus,(More)
The realization that senescence, age-dependent declines in survival and reproductive performance, pervades natural populations has brought its evolutionary significance into sharper focus. However, reproductive senescence remains poorly understood because it is difficult to separate male and female mechanisms underpinning reproductive success. We(More)
The profound and pervasive differences in gene expression observed between males and females, and the unique evolutionary properties of these genes in many species, have led to the widespread assumption that they are the product of sexual selection and sexual conflict. However, we still lack a clear understanding of the connection between sexual selection(More)