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Mitochondrial interactions with the nuclear genome represent one of life's most important co-evolved mutualisms. In many organisms, mitochondria are maternally inherited, and in these cases, co-transmission between the mitochondrial and nuclear genes differs across different parts of the nuclear genome, with genes on the X chromosome having two-third(More)
Evolutionary conflict permeates biological systems. In sexually reproducing organisms, sex-specific optima mean that the same allele can have sexually antagonistic expression, i.e. beneficial in one sex and detrimental in the other, a phenomenon known as intralocus sexual conflict. Intralocus sexual conflict is emerging as a potentially fundamental factor(More)
The realization that senescence, age-dependent declines in survival and reproductive performance, pervades natural populations has brought its evolutionary significance into sharper focus. However, reproductive senescence remains poorly understood because it is difficult to separate male and female mechanisms underpinning reproductive success. We(More)
Bateman's principles explain sex roles and sexual dimorphism through sex-specific variance in mating success, reproductive success and their relationships within sexes (Bateman gradients). Empirical tests of these principles, however, have come under intense scrutiny. Here, we experimentally show that in replicate groups of red junglefowl, Gallus gallus,(More)
The elevated rate of evolution for genes on sex chromosomes compared with autosomes (Fast-X or Fast-Z evolution) can result either from positive selection in the heterogametic sex or from nonadaptive consequences of reduced relative effective population size. Recent work in birds suggests that Fast-Z of coding sequence is primarily due to relaxed purifying(More)
Mito-nuclear gene interactions regulate energy conversion, and are fundamental to eukaryotes. Generally, mito-nuclear coadaptation would be most efficient if the interacting nuclear genes were X-linked, because this maximizes the probability of favorable mito-nuclear allelic combinations co-transmitting across generations. Thus, under a coadaptation (CA)(More)
Genetic correlations between males and females are often thought to constrain the evolution of sexual dimorphism. However, sexually dimorphic traits and the underlying sexually dimorphic gene expression patterns are often rapidly evolving. We explore this apparent paradox by measuring the genetic correlation in gene expression between males and females(More)
Insect pollination underpins apple production but the extent to which different pollinator guilds supply this service, particularly across different apple varieties, is unknown. Such information is essential if appropriate orchard management practices are to be targeted and proportional to the potential benefits pollinator species may provide. Here we use a(More)
Sex chromosomes can evolve once recombination is halted between a homologous pair of chromosomes. Owing to detailed studies using key model systems, we have a nuanced understanding and a rich review literature of what happens to sex chromosomes once recombination is arrested. However, three broad questions remain unanswered. First, why do sex chromosomes(More)