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The prefrontal cortex is implicated in such human characteristics as volition, planning, abstract reasoning and affect. Frontal-lobe damage can cause disinhibition such that the behaviour of a subject is guided by previously acquired responses that are inappropriate to the current situation. Here we demonstrate that disinhibition, or a loss of inhibitory(More)
Using a primate analogue of the Wisconsin Card Sort Test, this study demonstrated, for the first time, that lesions of the prefrontal cortex in monkeys produce a qualitatively similar impairment in attentional set-shifting to that seen following prefrontal cortical damage in humans. Although damage to the prefrontal cortex did not disrupt the ability of(More)
Attentional set-shifting and discrimination reversal are sensitive to prefrontal damage in the marmoset in a manner qualitatively similar to that seen in man and Old World monkeys, respectively (Dias et al., 1996b). Preliminary findings have demonstrated that although lateral but not orbital prefrontal cortex is the critical locus in shifting an attentional(More)
Selective cognitive impairments, including those of executive function as assessed using the Wisconsin Card Sort Test or intradimensional–extradimensional (ID–ED) tests, are a key feature of schizophrenia but remain inadequately treated by existing therapies. Recently, however, modafinil has been shown to improve attentional set-shifting performance in(More)
Paired-associate learning (PAL), as part of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery, is able to predict who from an at-risk population will develop Alzheimer’s disease. Schizophrenic patients are also impaired on this same task. An automated rodent model of PAL would be extremely beneficial in further research into Alzheimer’s disease and(More)
The GABA(A) receptor subtypes responsible for the anxiolytic effects of nonselective benzodiazepines (BZs) such as chlordiazepoxide (CDP) and diazepam remain controversial. Hence, molecular genetic data suggest that alpha2-rather than alpha3-containing GABA(A) receptors are responsible for the anxiolytic effects of diazepam, whereas the anxiogenic effects(More)
Therapies treating cognitive impairments in schizophrenia especially deficits in executive functioning are not available at present. The current study evaluated the effect of ampakine CX516 in reversing deficits in executive functioning as represented in two animal models of schizophrenia and assessed by a rodent analog of the(More)
Damage to the prefrontal cortex disrupts the performance of self-ordered sequencing tasks, although the precise mechanisms by which this effect occurs is unclear. Active working memory, inhibitory control, and the ability to generate and perform a sequence of responses are all putative cognitive abilities that may be responsible for the impaired performance(More)
The present study investigated the contributions of the medial prefrontal cortex and its major subdivisions, the dorsal anterior cingulate (ACd) and prelimbic-infralimbic (PL) cortices, to spatial working memory and inhibitory control processes. In experiment 1, excitotoxic lesions centred in the ACd or PL cortex did not affect acquisition of a(More)
Activity of the immediate early gene c-fos was compared across hemispheres in rats with unilateral anterior thalamic lesions. Fos protein was quantified after rats performed a spatial working memory test in the radial-arm maze, a task that is sensitive to bilateral lesions of the anterior thalamic nuclei. Unilateral anterior thalamic lesions produced(More)