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Cichlid fish inhabit a diverse range of environments that vary in the spectral content of light available for vision. These differences should result in adaptive selective pressure on the genes involved in visual sensitivity, the opsin genes. This study examines the evidence for differential adaptive molecular evolution in East African cichlid opsin genes(More)
H ave you ever asked your students the following questions: Why do we need oxygen? How does it get into our cells? How do ecosystems maintain their balance? What are the roles of different organ-isms? All of these questions focus on systems thinking and are useful in helping to push students to think below the surface. Systems thinking is so important that(More)
The benefits and side effects of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) given two vs. three times per week were examined in depressed inpatients. Twenty subjects were randomly assigned to one of two treatment conditions (unilateral ECT two or three times weekly). Examiners without knowledge of treatment condition rated depression and psychiatric status and(More)
Citizen science can make major contributions to informal science education by targeting participants' attitudes and knowledge about science while changing human behavior towards the environment. We examined how training associated with an invasive species citizen science program affected participants in these areas. We found no changes in science literacy(More)
Evolutionary adaptation drives biodiversity. So far, however, evolutionary thinking has had limited impact on plans to counter the effects of climate change on biodiversity and associated ecosystem services. This is despite habitat fragmentation diminishing the ability of populations to mount evolutionary responses, via reductions in population size,(More)
To reason about complex natural systems, learners need opportunities to develop and represent their ideas about how these systems operate. In our work, we use an explicit conceptual representation – the Structure-Behavior-Function (SBF) ontology (Goel et al., 1996; Hmelo-Silver et al., 2007; Goel et al. 2009) – to help middle school students model and(More)
This paper explores how a group of students collaborated in understanding ecosystem processes in a technology intense learning environment. The technology (hypermedia, NetLogo simulations and ACT toolkit) provided opportunities for students to engage with complex phenomena and understand the dynamic nature of the ecosystems. It is difficult for learners to(More)
The invasion paradox describes the scale dependence of native-exotic richness relationships (NERRs), where NERRs are negative at neighborhood scales and positive at landscape scales. However, a lack of tropical surveys and past failures to isolate potential confounding variables contribute to significant gaps in our understanding of the processes producing(More)