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Slices of CNS tissue prepared from young rodents can be maintained in culture for many weeks to months. The basic requirements are simple: a stable substratum, culture medium, sufficient oxygenation and incubation at a temperature of about 36 degrees C. Under these conditions, nerve cells continue to differentiate and to develop a tissue organization that(More)
We investigated the influence of synaptically released glutamate on postsynaptic structure by comparing the effects of deafferentation, receptor antagonists and blockers of glutamate release in hippocampal slice cultures. CA1 pyramidal cell spine density and length decreased after transection of Schaffer collaterals and after application of AMPA receptor(More)
Most psychiatric disorders are moderately to highly heritable. The degree to which genetic variation is unique to individual disorders or shared across disorders is unclear. To examine shared genetic etiology, we use genome-wide genotype data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) for cases and controls in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major(More)
The delayed development of recurring seizures is a common consequence of traumatic head injury; the cause of such epilepsy is unknown. We demonstrate here that transection of the mature axons of CA3 pyramidal cells in hippocampal slice cultures leads to the formation by CA3 pyramidal cells of new axon collaterals that are immunoreactive with the(More)
An overall burden of rare structural genomic variants has not been reported in bipolar disorder (BD), although there have been reports of cases with microduplication and microdeletion. Here, we present a genome-wide copy number variant (CNV) survey of 1001 cases and 1034 controls using the Affymetrix single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) 6.0 SNP and CNV(More)
Dendritic spines are the site of most excitatory connections in the hippocampus. We have investigated the diffusibility of a membrane-bound green fluorescent protein (mGFP) within the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane using Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching. In dendritic spines the diffusion of mGFP was significantly retarded relative to the(More)
Botulinum (BoNT/A-G) and tetanus toxins (TeNT) are zinc endopeptidases that cleave proteins associated with presynaptic terminals (SNAP-25, syntaxin, or VAMP/synaptobrevin) and block neurotransmitter release. Treatment of hippocampal slice cultures with BoNT/A, BoNT/C, BoNT/E, or TeNT prevented the occurrence of spontaneous or miniature EPSCs (sEPSCs or(More)
Dendritic defects occur in neurodegenerative diseases accompanied by axonopathy, yet the mechanisms that regulate these pathologic changes are poorly understood. Using Thy1-YFPH mice subjected to optic nerve axotomy, we demonstrate early retraction of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) dendrites and selective loss of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity,(More)
The vast majority of excitatory connections in the hippocampus are made on dendritic spines. Both dendritic spines and molecules within the membrane are able to move, but the physiological role of these movements is unclear. In the developing brain, spines show highly dynamic behaviour thought to facilitate new synaptic connections. Dynamic movements also(More)
1. Paired recordings from monosynaptically connected CA3 interneurons and pyramidal cells of rat hippocampal slice cultures were used to compare the modulation of GABA release at synapses from distinct interneurons. 2. The group II metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) agonist (2S,2'R,3'R)-2-(2',3'-dicarboxylcyclopropyl) glycine (DCG-IV, 5 muM) reduced(More)