The adult hippocampus in birds and mammals undergoes neurogenesis and the resulting new neurons appear to integrate structurally and functionally into the existing neural architecture. However, the factors underlying the regulation of new neuron production is still under scrutiny. In recent years, the concept that spatial memory affects adult hippocampal… (More)
The complexity of an animal's physical environment is known to affect the hippocampus. Captivity may affect hippocampal anatomy and this may be attributable to the limited opportunities for memory-based experiences. This has tangential support, in that differential demands on memory can mediate changes in the hippocampus. What remains unclear is whether… (More)
Keywords: behavioural profile exploration mountain chickadee personality Pocile gambeli social dominance temperament Individual variation in stable behavioural traits may explain variation in ecologically relevant behaviours such as foraging, dispersal, anti-predator behaviour, and dominance. We investigated behavioural variation in mountain chickadees, a… (More)
Inhibitory activity against the enzyme monoamine oxidase is present in low molecular weight fractions (less than 100,000) of human cerebrospinal fluid. These endogenous substances of different molecular weights (3000 to more than 35,000) act like monoamine oxidase inhibitor drugs to inhibit both type A and type B monoamine oxidase.
Brain plasticity and adult neurogenesis may play a role in many ecologically important processes including mate recognition, song learning and production, and spatial memory processing. In a number of species, both physical and social environments appear to influence attributes (e.g., volume, neuron number, and neurogenesis) of particular brain regions. The… (More)
An animal's memory may be limited in capacity, which may result in competition among available memory cues. If such competition exists, natural selection may favor prioritization of different memory cues based on cue reliability and on associated differences in the environment and life history. Food-caching birds store numerous food items and appear to rely… (More)
Individual variation in stable behavioral traits may explain variation in ecologically-relevant behaviors such as foraging, dispersal, anti-predator behavior, and dominance. We investigated behavioral variation in mountain chickadees (Poecile gambeli), a North American parid that lives in dominance-structured winter flocks, using two common measures of… (More)
While pair behavioral compatibility seems to be a determinant of reproductive success in at least some species of monogamous birds, the specific factors underlying among-pair variation in behavioral compatibility remain poorly understood. However, recent research on the relationship between personality traits and reproductive success in several species of… (More)