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Oncogene activation has been shown to generate replication-born DNA damage, also known as replicative stress. The primary responder to replicative stress is not Ataxia-Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) but rather the kinase ATM and Rad3-related (ATR). One limitation for the study of ATR is the lack of potent inhibitors. We here describe a cell-based screening(More)
The present study assessed the subjective and cardiovascular effects of intravenous nicotine in smokers and nonsmokers. Nonsmokers (n = 5) and smokers (n = 5) were administered a single dose of nicotine (0.75 or 1.5 mg) or saline on each of 3 days. The nicotine doses were given in ascending order in a double-blind fashion. Although smokers and nonsmokers(More)
The ATR kinase is a key transducer of "replicative stress," the type of genomic damage that has been postulated to be induced by oncogenes. Here we describe a cellular system in which we can unleash ATR activity at will, in the absence of any actual damage or additional signaling pathways triggered by DNA breaks. We demonstrate that activating ATR is(More)
Oncogene-induced replicative stress activates an Atr- and Chk1-dependent response, which has been proposed to be widespread in tumors. We explored whether the presence of replicative stress could be exploited for the selective elimination of cancer cells. To this end, we evaluated the impact of targeting the replicative stress-response on cancer(More)
In response to DNA damage, chromatin undergoes a global decondensation process that has been proposed to facilitate genome surveillance. However, the impact that chromatin compaction has on the DNA damage response (DDR) has not directly been tested and thus remains speculative. We apply two independent approaches (one based on murine embryonic stem cells(More)
Although DNA damage is considered a driving force for aging, the nature of the damage that arises endogenously remains unclear. Replicative stress, a source of endogenous DNA damage, is prevented primarily by the ATR kinase. We have developed a mouse model of Seckel syndrome characterized by a severe deficiency in ATR. Seckel mice show high levels of(More)
Recent studies in human fibroblasts have provided a new general paradigm of tumor suppression according to which oncogenic signaling produces DNA damage and this, in turn, results in ATM/p53-dependent cellular senescence. Here, we have tested this model in a variety of murine experimental systems. Overexpression of oncogenic Ras in murine fibroblasts(More)
Class switch recombination (CSR) diversifies antibodies for productive immune responses while maintaining stability of the B-cell genome. Transcription at the immunoglobulin heavy chain (Igh) locus targets CSR-associated DNA damage and is promoted by the BRCT domain-containing PTIP (Pax transactivation domain-interacting protein). Although PTIP is a unique(More)
DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are highly cytotoxic DNA lesions, whose accurate repair by non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) or homologous recombination (HR) is crucial for genome integrity and is strongly influenced by the local chromatin environment. Here, we identify SCAI (suppressor of cancer cell invasion) as a 53BP1-interacting chromatin-associated(More)
DEK is a highly conserved chromatin-bound protein whose upregulation across cancer types correlates with genotoxic therapy resistance. Loss of DEK induces genome instability and sensitizes cells to DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), suggesting defects in DNA repair. While these DEK-deficiency phenotypes were thought to arise from a moderate attenuation of(More)
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