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Adolescent binge drinking is concerning, as important neurodevelopments occur during this stage. Previous research suggests that binge drinking may disrupt typical brain development, and females may be particularly vulnerable. We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to examine cortical thickness in adolescent females and males with and without histories of(More)
OBJECTIVE Many adolescents engage in heavy alcohol use. The aim of this study was to disentangle whether brain abnormalities seen in adolescent heavy drinkers are a consequence of heavy drinking, a preexisting risk factor for initiation of alcohol use, or both. METHOD Study 1 used cross-sectional functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) visual(More)
OBJECTIVE Individual differences in subjective response to alcohol and the occurrence of blackouts and hangover are associated with the development of alcohol-use disorders. As such, subjective responses to alcohol, blackouts, and hangover may share a biological vulnerability to excessive alcohol consumption. The purpose of the current study was to examine(More)
PURPOSE The current study examined one's sense of personal invincibility as a contributing factor to high school athletes' more frequent behavioral risks compared to those of non-athletes. Perceived risk was assessed as a mediator of sports participation and alcohol use, and sports participation and sexual activity among high school athletes. METHODS(More)
Sex differences in tobacco-related morbidity and mortality exist, with women experiencing more severe health consequences and greater difficulty with smoking cessation than men. One factor that likely contributes to these sex differences is menstrual cycle phase and associated neural and cognitive changes associated with ovarian hormone fluctuations across(More)
Response inhibition abnormalities contribute to several maladaptive behaviors commonly observed during adolescence, including heavy drinking. The present study aimed to determine whether abnormalities in brain response during response inhibition predate or follow adolescents’ transition into heavy drinking, which is pivotal in identifying the neural(More)
Cigarette smoke contains nicotine and toxic chemicals and may cause significant neurochemical and anatomical brain changes. Voxel-based morphometry studies have examined the effects of smoking on the brain by comparing gray matter volume (GMV) in nicotine dependent individuals (NDs) to nonsmoking individuals with inconsistent results. Although sex(More)
BACKGROUND Alcohol-induced blackouts are associated with the development of alcohol abuse and dependence, so it is important to consider potential neurobiological risk factors for experiencing this problem prior to the onset of substance use. This study examines whether neural activity during inhibitory processing might be atypical in substance-naïve youth(More)
BACKGROUND Alcohol-induced blackouts, or memory loss for all or portions of events that occurred during a drinking episode, are reported by approximately 50% of drinkers and are associated with a wide range of negative consequences, including injury and death. As such, identifying the factors that contribute to and result from alcohol-induced blackouts is(More)
OBJECTIVE We evaluated selection and socialization processes associated with perceived descriptive norms and drinking from high school through the first 2 years of college. METHOD Participants (n = 2,247; 61.6% female) completed measures of high school drinking and descriptive drinking norms for their social group and the typical student at the university(More)