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OBJECTIVE Many adolescents engage in heavy alcohol use. The aim of this study was to disentangle whether brain abnormalities seen in adolescent heavy drinkers are a consequence of heavy drinking, a preexisting risk factor for initiation of alcohol use, or both. METHOD Study 1 used cross-sectional functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) visual(More)
Adolescent binge drinking is concerning, as important neurodevelopments occur during this stage. Previous research suggests that binge drinking may disrupt typical brain development, and females may be particularly vulnerable. We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to examine cortical thickness in adolescent females and males with and without histories of(More)
Response inhibition abnormalities contribute to several maladaptive behaviors commonly observed during adolescence, including heavy drinking. The present study aimed to determine whether abnormalities in brain response during response inhibition predate or follow adolescents’ transition into heavy drinking, which is pivotal in identifying the neural(More)
Cigarette smoke contains nicotine and toxic chemicals and may cause significant neurochemical and anatomical brain changes. Voxel-based morphometry studies have examined the effects of smoking on the brain by comparing gray matter volume (GMV) in nicotine dependent individuals (NDs) to nonsmoking individuals with inconsistent results. Although sex(More)
BACKGROUND Resting-state functional connectivity is a noninvasive, neuroimaging method for assessing neural network function. Altered functional connectivity among regions of the default-mode network have been associated with both nicotine and cannabis use; however, less is known about co-occurring cannabis and tobacco use. METHODS We used posterior(More)
Although several sex differences in nicotine dependence have been identified, the neural mechanisms underlying these sex differences are not clear. The present study examines sex differences in resting-state brain activity using an arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion imaging technique. Fifty-one (31 males) sated nicotine-dependent cigarette smokers(More)
BACKGROUND Alcohol-induced blackouts are associated with the development of alcohol abuse and dependence, so it is important to consider potential neurobiological risk factors for experiencing this problem prior to the onset of substance use. This study examines whether neural activity during inhibitory processing might be atypical in substance-naïve youth(More)
Anecdotal and clinical theories purport that females are more responsive to smoking cues, yet few objective, neurophysiological examinations of these theories have been conducted. The current study examines the impact of sex on brain responses to smoking cues. Fifty-one (31 males) cigarette-dependent sated smokers underwent pseudo- continuous arterial(More)
Addiction theories posit that drug-related cues maintain and contribute to drug use and relapse. Indeed, our recent study in cocaine-dependent patients demonstrated that subliminally presented cocaine-related stimuli activate reward neurocircuitry without being consciously perceived. Activation of reward neurocircuitry may provoke craving and perhaps prime(More)
Relapse is a widely recognized and difficult to treat feature of the addictions. Substantial evidence implicates cue-triggered activation of the mesolimbic dopamine system as an important contributing factor. Even drug cues presented outside of conscious awareness (i.e., subliminally) produce robust activation within this circuitry, indicating the(More)