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Findings in BRCA1 mutation carriers suggest that physical activity, particularly during childhood, may be linked to a reduced risk of developing breast cancer. We investigated whether physical activity at puberty alters the expression of BRCA1 and two other tumor suppressor genes—p53 and estrogen receptor (ER)-β—in rats. In addition, the effects on ER-α(More)
Adolescence and young adulthood may be critical windows in establishing risk for breast cancer development in humans. Epidemiological data suggest that exercise during this life stage is associated with decreased breast cancer risk yet few experimental studies to elucidate the mechanism have been performed. The purpose of these studies was to evaluate the(More)
AIM During each oestrous cycle, the mammary gland is subject to changes in ovarian hormone levels. It responds with limited proliferation, differentiation and regression. To understand the processes resulting in these changes, particularly the regulation of cell death, we examined protein levels in mammary epithelium during the oestrous cycle of the(More)
Physical activity has been associated with decreased risk for developing breast cancer yet to date, the mechanism remains unknown. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effects of moderate exercise training on the normal mammary gland in an attempt to identify alterations or differences that might be associated with tumour inhibition. A(More)
Cognitive impairment occurs in 45-65% of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. The cannabinoid system may potentially be neuroprotective in MS. We examined the relationship between polymorphisms of the CNR1 gene and neuropsychological outcome in MS using a test and confirmatory sample of patients. One hundred and ninety-four MS patients were assessed over five(More)
Benign vulval disease comprises a variety of disorders and can affect women of all ages. To date, the optimal management of these conditions has been uncertain and not subjected to a systemic prospective approach. It is recognized that benign vulval disease has a potential premalignant potential. Squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA) has shown in different(More)
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