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This study shows that top-down decomposition is problematic in the early stages of design. Instead, an opportunistic decomposition is better suited to handle the ill-structuredness of design problems. Designers are observed interleaving decisions at various levels of abstraction in the solution decomposition. The verbal protocols of three professionals(More)
High-level software design is characterized by incompletely specified requirements, no predetermined solution path, and by the integration of multiple domains of knowledge at various levels of abstraction. The application of data-driven knowledge rules characterizes expertise. A verbal protocol study describes these domains of knowledge and how experts(More)
User-adviser dialogues were collected in a typed Wizard-of-Oz study (=man-behind-the-curtain study*). Thirty-two users had to solve simple statistics problems using an unfamiliar statistical package. Users received help on how to use the statistical package by typing utterances to what they believed was a computerized adviser. The observed limited set of(More)
A verbal protocol study of professional software designers has revealed three design process control strategies. At least one of them, the generation of <italic>opportunistic</italic> solutions at different levels of detail accompanied by problem domain modeling, had not been observed in previous empirical studies nor had been acknowledged in the software(More)
Key findings from empirical studies&#8212;early design is opportunistic; critical role of pictures in design conception; impact of various cognitive limitations&#8212;have very effectively determined requirements and design for a set of tools to support early design. Key design features of the tools include respectively: (1) The (simultaneous) display of(More)
INTRODUCTION Anaphora resolution is the process of determining the referent of ~uaphors. such as definite noun phrases and pronouns, in a discourse. Computational linguists, in modeling the process of anaphora resolution, have proposed the notion of focusing. Focusing is the process, engaged in by a reader, of selecting a subset of the discourse items and(More)
Advisory systems can be very powerful general tools for users. Formal query languages, menus, and direct manipulation interfaces might not suffice to access advisory systems' full functionality. The capabilities of natural language interfaces could be required. Unfortunately, natural language interfaces are not meeting the needs yet. Wide syntactic coverage(More)
An English language question answering system for a large relational database. APPENDIX TABLE 1: Scoring data from the dialogues. HiFi and Travel are advisory and order. PUB is a data base. C line and Wines are advisory systems. Task and dialogue structure When developing NL-technology, it is important to try to assess the applicability domain of a system.(More)