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We demonstrate in two experiments that real and imagined body movements appropriate to metaphorical phrases facilitate people's immediate comprehension of these phrases. Participants first learned to make different body movements given specific cues. In two reading time studies, people were faster to understand a metaphorical phrase, such as push the(More)
Two sets of experiments examined people's embodied understanding of metaphorical narratives. Participants heard one of two stories about a romantic relationship; either one that was successful or one that was not, that initially described it in metaphorical terms as "Your relationship was moving along in a good direction" or nonmetaphorical terms as "Your(More)
Most theories of comprehension assume that every word in an utterance is comprehended by selecting its intended sense from a short exhaustive list of potential senses in the mental lexicon. This assumption is challenged by novel words based on proper nouns, as in After Joe listened to the tape of the interview, he did a Richard Nixon to a portion of it(More)
Contemporary theories of metaphor differ in many dimensions, including the discipline they originate from (e.g., linguistics, psychology, philosophy), and whether they are developed primarily within a cognitive or pragmatic theoretical framework. This article evaluates two directions of metaphor research within linguistics, cognitive linguistics and(More)
When people are asked "Do you have the time?" they can answer in a variety of ways, such as "It is almost 3", "Yeah, it is quarter past two", or more precisely as in "It is now 1:43". We present the results of four experiments that examined people's real-life answers to questions about the time. Our hypothesis, following previous research findings, was that(More)