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Biochemical, electrophysiological, and pharmacological evidence supporting a role for cholinergic dysfunction in age-related memory disturbances is critically reviewed. An attempt has been made to identify pseudoissues, resolve certain controversies, and clarify misconceptions that have occurred in the literature. Significant cholinergic dysfunctions occur(More)
OBJECTIVE We tested the hypothesis that gene delivery of the trophic factor neurturin could preserve motor function and protect nigrostriatal circuitry in hemiparkinsonian monkeys. METHODS An adeno-associated virus-based vector encoding human neurturin (AAV2-NTN; also called CERE-120) was injected into the striatum and substantia nigra of monkeys 4 days(More)
BACKGROUND In an open-label phase 1 trial, gene delivery of the trophic factor neurturin via an adeno-associated type-2 vector (AAV2) was well tolerated and seemed to improve motor function in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of AAV2-neurturin in a double-blind, phase 2 randomised trial. METHODS We did(More)
The pace of nigrostriatal degeneration, both with regards to striatal denervation and loss of melanin and tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons, is poorly understood especially early in the Parkinson's disease process. This study investigated the extent of nigrostriatal degeneration in patients with Parkinson's disease at different disease durations from(More)
Life's Journey If life is indeed a journey, then poetry must be the map that reveals all its topographic possibilitiesellipsis while science is the compass that keeps us from getting lost. -R. T. Bartus, Simple Words for Complex Lives, (c) 1998 In the nearly 20 years since the cholinergic hypothesis was initially formulated, significant progress has been(More)
Marked increases in intracellular calcium may play a role in mediating cellular dysfunction and death following central nervous system trauma, in part through the activation of the calcium-dependent neutral protease calpain. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the calpain inhibitor AK295 [Z-Leu-aminobutyric acid-CONH(CH2)3-morpholine] on cognitive and(More)
Administration of the selective calpain inhibitor AK295 has been shown to attenuate motor and cognitive dysfunction after brain trauma in rats. To explore mechanisms underlying the behavioral efficacy of posttraumatic calpain inhibition, we investigated histologic consequences of AK295 administration. Anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats received lateral fluid(More)
BACKGROUND There is an urgent need for therapies that slow or reverse the progression of Parkinson's disease (PD). Neurotrophic factors can improve the function of degenerating neurons and protect against further neurodegeneration, and gene transfer might be a means to deliver effectively these factors to the brain. The aim of this study was to assess the(More)
Structural analogs of oxotremorine have been employed to examine the relationship between the binding of agonists to muscarinic receptors in guinea pig cerebral cortex and the enhancement of inositol lipid turnover. Large differences were observed in the ability of the analogs to stimulate inositol phospholipid turnover, as measured both by the increase in(More)
Two separate experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of the anti-cholinergic scopolamine on primate visual discrimination and short-term memory (STM). In the first experiment it was shown that relatively mild doses of scopolamine severly impaired visual discrimination performance, even though the test procedure provided strong stimulus control.(More)