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Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membraneous vesicles released by a variety of cells into their microenvironment. Recent studies have elucidated the role of EVs in intercellular communication, pathogenesis, drug, vaccine and gene-vector delivery, and as possible reservoirs of biomarkers. These findings have generated immense interest, along with an(More)
Cell-derived membrane vesicles (CMVs) are endogenous carriers transporting proteins and nucleic acids between cells. They appear to play an important role in many disease processes, most notably inflammation and cancer, where their efficient functional delivery of biological cargo seems to contribute to the disease progress. CMVs encompass a variety of(More)
Potent sequence selective gene inhibition by siRNA 'targeted' therapeutics promises the ultimate level of specificity, but siRNA therapeutics is hindered by poor intracellular uptake, limited blood stability and non-specific immune stimulation. To address these problems, ligand-targeted, sterically stabilized nanoparticles have been adapted for siRNA.(More)
During the past decade, RGD-peptides have become a popular tool for the targeting of drugs and imaging agents to alphavbeta3-integrin expressing tumour vasculature. RGD-peptides have been introduced by recombinant means into therapeutic proteins and viruses. Chemical means have been applied to couple RGD-peptides and RGD-mimetics to liposomes, polymers,(More)
Ocular neovascularization often results in vision impairment. Frequently vascular endothelial cell growth factors (VEGFs) are mainly responsible for the pathological neovascularization as in the case in neovascularization induced by CpG oligodeoxynucleotides and herpes simplex virus infection in this report. siRNAs targeting either VEGFA, VEGFR1, VEGFR2, or(More)
OBJECTIVE RNA interference is a process in which genes can be silenced sequence-specifically. In mammals, RNA interference can be invoked by introduction of small (19-21-nucleotide) double-stranded RNA molecules known as small interfering RNA (siRNA) into cells. Thereby, siRNA offers promise as a novel therapeutic modality. However, siRNA is a relatively(More)
The identification of extracellular phospholipid vesicles as conveyors of cellular information has created excitement in the field of drug delivery. Biological therapeutics, including short interfering RNA and recombinant proteins, are prone to degradation, have limited ability to cross biological membranes, and may elicit immune responses. Therefore,(More)
Angiogenesis is a key process in the growth and metastasis of a tumor. Disrupting this process is considered a promising treatment strategy. Therefore, a drug delivery system specifically aiming at angiogenic tumor endothelial cells was developed. Alpha v beta 3-integrins are overexpressed on actively proliferating endothelium and represent a possible(More)
Efficient intracellular delivery of siRNA is a significant hurdle to its therapeutic success. For biological studies on the efficiency of carrier-mediated uptake of siRNA, quantitative determination of the amount of internalized siRNA is required. In this study, when the apparent uptake of fluorescently labeled siRNA, formulated in different lipo- and(More)
Small interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules are the functional mediators of a post-transcriptional gene silencing process known as RNA interference (RNAi). The silencing of genes involved in diseases, using siRNA, is considered a very promising therapeutic strategy. However, as for all the nucleic acid based therapeutics, these negatively charged and(More)