Raymond Sawaya

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Autophagy is a process in which subcellular membranes undergo dynamic morphological changes that lead to the degradation of cellular proteins and cytoplasmic organelles. This process is an important cellular response to stress or starvation. Many studies have shed light on the importance of autophagy in cancer, but it is still unclear whether autophagy(More)
Between January 1975 and April 2001, 8,225 patients with ovarian cancer were seen at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. Brain metastases developed in 72 of these patients (0.9%). The medical records of these patients were reviewed to assess the incidence of these metastases and their correlates of survival, as well as to describe the(More)
The expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) has been linked with tumor invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis. However, the molecular basis for MMP-2 overexpression in tumor cells remains unclear. In this study, by using K-1735 melanoma system, we demonstrated that highly metastatic C4, M2, and X21 tumor cells express elevated MMP-2 mRNA and(More)
Brain metastasis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with melanoma. The molecular changes that lead to brain metastasis remain poorly understood. In this study, we developed a model to study human melanoma brain metastasis and found that Stat3 activity was increased in human brain metastatic melanoma cells when compared with that in(More)
PURPOSE Immunologic targeting of tumor-specific gene mutations may allow precise eradication of neoplastic cells without toxicity. Epidermal growth factor receptor variant III (EGFRvIII) is a constitutively activated and immunogenic mutation not expressed in normal tissues but widely expressed in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and other neoplasms. PATIENTS(More)
Macrophages (MΦs)/microglia that constitute the dominant tumor-infiltrating immune cells in glioblastoma are recruited by tumor-secreted factors and are induced to become immunosuppressive and tumor supportive (M2). Glioma cancer stem cells (gCSCs) have been shown to suppress adaptive immunity, but their role in innate immunity with respect to the(More)
Autophagy is a response of cancer cells to various anticancer therapies. It is designated as programmed cell death type II and characterized by the formation of autophagic vacuoles in the cytoplasm. The Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K) and the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) pathways are(More)
Wnt/β-catenin signaling is essential for stem cell regulation and tumorigenesis, but its molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. Here, we report that FoxM1 is a downstream component of Wnt signaling and is critical for β-catenin transcriptional function in tumor cells. Wnt3a increases the level and nuclear translocation of FoxM1, which binds directly(More)
PURPOSE The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is overexpressed in approximately 50% to 60% of glioblastoma multiforme tumors, and the most common EGFR mutant, EGFRvIII, is expressed in 24% to 67% of cases. We sought to determine whether glioblastoma multiforme expression of either overexpressed wild-type EGFR or the mutant EGFRvIII is an independent(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the impact of intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) on the decision to proceed with additional glioma resection during surgery and to maximize extent of resection (EOR). METHODS Patients who underwent craniotomy for glioma resection with high-field iMRI guidance were prospectively evaluated between September 2006 and(More)