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In a hierarchical multilevel diversity coding system, each decoder has access to a certain subset of the full source code, and the decoders are partitioned into fidelity levels i n a hierarchical manner. W e show that w i t h o u t loss in rate-distortion performance , this coding s y s t e m can be separated into a successive refinement stage followed by a(More)
p34cdc2, collapsin response mediator protein 4 (CRMP4), doublecortin (DCX), HuD, and NeuN expression was assessed in tuber (n = 16) and subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA; n = 6) specimens in tuberous sclerosis complex to define the developmental phenotype and lineage of giant cells (CGs) in these lesions. Many GCs exhibited HuD and NeuN(More)
Tuberous sclerosis (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disorder, caused by mutations of either the TSC1 or TSC2 gene. Characteristic brain pathologies (including cortical tubers and subependymal hamartomas/giant astrocytomas) are thought to cause epilepsy, as well as other neurological dysfunction. The Eker rat, which carries a spontaneous germline mutation of(More)
BACKGROUND Cancer cells possess unique metabolic phenotypes that are determined by their underlying oncogenic pathways. Activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling cascade promotes glycolysis and leads to glucose-dependence in tumors. In particular, cells with constitutive mTORC1 activity secondary to the loss of TSC1/TSC2 function are prone to undergo(More)
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is causally linked to type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. In a normal liver, insulin suppresses gluconeogenesis and promotes lipogenesis. In type 2 diabetes, the liver exhibits selective insulin resistance by failing to inhibit hepatic glucose production while maintaining triglyceride synthesis.(More)
Chronic liver injury leads to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and loss of liver function. Liver cirrhosis is the 12th leading cause of death in the United States, and it is the primary risk factor for developing liver cancer. Fibrosis and cirrhosis result from activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), which are the primary collagen producing cell type in the liver.(More)
Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FL-HCC) has historically been classified as a rare subtype of HCC. However, unlike "classic" HCC, it occurs in children and young adults without underlying liver disease. The recent discovery of a deletion mutation in all FL-HCCs represented a major advancement in understanding the pathogenesis of this disease. This(More)
Liver fibrosis is mediated by hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), which respond to a variety of cytokine and growth factors to moderate the response to injury and create extracellular matrix at the site of injury. G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR)-mediated signaling, via endothelin-1 (ET-1) and angiotensin II (AngII), increases HSC contraction, migration and(More)