Learn More
Throughout evolution, numerous proteins have been convergently recruited into the venoms of various animals, including centipedes, cephalopods, cone snails, fish, insects (several independent venom systems), platypus, scorpions, shrews, spiders, toxicoferan reptiles (lizards and snakes), and sea anemones. The protein scaffolds utilized convergently have(More)
Amyloid beta peptide (Abeta) is the major constituent of extracellular plaques and perivascular amyloid deposits, the pathognomonic neuropathological lesions of Alzheimer's disease. Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) bind Abeta, inducing aggregation and giving rise to reactive oxygen species. These reactions may play a deleterious role in the disease state, because high(More)
  • R S Norton
  • 1991
Sea anemones produce a series of toxic polypeptides and proteins with molecular weights in the range 3000-5000 that act by binding to specific receptor sites on the voltage-gated sodium channel of excitable tissue. This article reviews our current knowledge of the molecular basis for activity of these molecules, with particular emphasis on recent results on(More)
A major source of free radical production in the brain derives from copper. To prevent metal-mediated oxidative stress, cells have evolved complex metal transport systems. The Alzheimer's disease amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a major regulator of neuronal copper homeostasis. APP knockout mice have elevated copper levels in the cerebral cortex, whereas(More)
Peptide neurotoxins from cone snails continue to supply compounds with therapeutic potential. Although several analgesic conotoxins have already reached human clinical trials, a continuing need exists for the discovery and development of novel non-opioid analgesics, such as subtype-selective sodium channel blockers. Micro-conotoxin KIIIA is representative(More)
An increasing number of ion channel toxins and related polypeptides have been found to adopt a common structural motif designated the inhibitor cystine knot motif (Pallaghy P. K., Nielsen, K. J., Craik, D. J., Norton, R. S. (1994) A common structural motif incorporating a cystine knot and triple-stranded beta-sheet in toxic and inhibitory polypeptides.(More)
A common structural motif consisting of a cystine knot and a small triple-stranded beta-sheet has been defined from comparison of the 3-dimensional structures of the polypeptides omega-conotoxin GVIA (Conus geographus), kalata BI (Oldenlandia affinis DC), and CMTI-I (Curcurbita maxima). These 3 polypeptides have diverse biological activities and negligible(More)
The process of osmoregulation in a unicellular blue-green alga, Synechococcus sp., has been studied by natural-abundance carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of intact cells and cell extracts. 2-O-alpha-D-Glucopyranosylglycerol was identified as the major organic osmoregulatory solute. This demonstrates the presence of a major osmoregulatory(More)
The structure-function relationships of the N-type calcium channel blocker, omega-conotoxin GVIA (GVIA), have been elucidated by structural, binding and in vitro and in vivo functional studies of alanine-substituted analogues of the native molecule. Alanine was substituted at all non-bridging positions in the sequence. In most cases the structure of the(More)