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Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) causes decreased reproductive performance in breeding animals and increased respiratory problems in growing animals, which result in significant economic losses in the swine industry. Vaccination has generally not been effective in the prevention of PRRS, partially because of the rapid mutation rate and(More)
The major structural proteins of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) are derived from ORFs 5, 6, and 7. Western blots of sucrose gradient-purified virions and PRRSV-infected MARC-145 cells, probed with immune pig serum, showed the presence of an additional 10-kDa protein. Nucleotide sequence analysis of North American PRRSV isolate(More)
Ubiquitin (Ub) and interferon-stimulated gene product 15 (ISG15) reversibly conjugate to proteins and mediate important innate antiviral responses. The ovarian tumor (OTU) domain represents a superfamily of predicted proteases found in eukaryotic, bacterial, and viral proteins, some of which have Ub-deconjugating activity. We show that the OTU(More)
The highly polymorphic swine leucocyte antigen (SLA) genes are among the most important determinants of swine immune responses to disease and vaccines. Accurate and effective SLA genotyping methods are required to understand how SLA gene polymorphisms affect immunity, especially in outbred pigs with diverse genetic backgrounds. In this study, we present a(More)
The highly polymorphic swine leucocyte antigen (SLA) genes are one of the most important determinants in swine immune responses to infectious diseases, vaccines, and in transplantation success. Study of SLA influence requires accurate and effective typing methods. We developed a simple and rapid method to type alleles at the three classical SLA class I loci(More)
The order Nidovirales, which includes the arteriviruses and coronaviruses, incorporate a cytoplasmic replication scheme; however, the nucleocapsid (N) protein of several members of this group localizes to the nucleolus suggesting that viral proteins influence nuclear processes during replication. The relatively small, 123 amino acid, N protein of porcine(More)
Pigs infected with porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (PRRSV) strain VR-2332 were found to generate high levels of antibodies (Abs) that bound in an indirect ELISA to synthetic peptides representing segments of the primary envelope glycoprotein (GP5) ectodomain of this virus. Use of overlapping GP5 ectodomain peptides of various length(More)
The nucleocapsid (N) protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) possesses two regions in the N-terminal half of the protein that are enriched in basic amino acids. Presumably, these basic regions are important for packaging the RNA genome within the nucleocapsid of the virus. The PSORT computer program identified the same regions(More)
1 To the Editor: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is the most economically important disease of swine in North America, Europe and Asia, costing producers in North America more than $600 million annually 1. The disease syndrome was first recognized in the United States in 1987 and described in 1989 (ref. 2). The causative agent, porcine(More)
Infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) results in a weak antiviral immune response that leads to a persistent infection in a subset of pigs. We investigated the intensity and timing of the early cytokine responses to PRRSV infection to determine their utility as a predictor of persistence. As part of the "Big Pig"(More)