Raymond R. R. Rowland

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Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) causes decreased reproductive performance in breeding animals and increased respiratory problems in growing animals, which result in significant economic losses in the swine industry. Vaccination has generally not been effective in the prevention of PRRS, partially because of the rapid mutation rate and(More)
In late 2005, sporadic cases of an acute onset disease of high mortality were observed in 10- to 16-week-old growing pigs among several swine herds of the United States. Tissues from the affected pigs in Kansas, Iowa, and North Carolina were examined, and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) was detected consistently among these tissues. Phylogenetically, PCV2(More)
 Pigs infected with porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (PRRSV) strain VR-2332 were found to generate high levels of antibodies (Abs) that bound in an indirect ELISA to synthetic peptides representing segments of the primary envelope glycoprotein (GP5) ectodomain of this virus. Use of overlapping GP5 ectodomain peptides of various length(More)
Ubiquitin (Ub) and interferon-stimulated gene product 15 (ISG15) reversibly conjugate to proteins and mediate important innate antiviral responses. The ovarian tumor (OTU) domain represents a superfamily of predicted proteases found in eukaryotic, bacterial, and viral proteins, some of which have Ub-deconjugating activity. We show that the OTU(More)
The major structural proteins of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) are derived from ORFs 5, 6, and 7. Western blots of sucrose gradient-purified virions and PRRSV-infected MARC-145 cells, probed with immune pig serum, showed the presence of an additional 10-kDa protein. Nucleotide sequence analysis of North American PRRSV isolate(More)
GP5, the principal envelope glycoprotein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), contains a hypervariable region within the ectodomain which is responsible for generating diversity in field isolates. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the possible origin of this diversity by following GP5 sequence changes in pigs(More)
European-like Type 1 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) isolates, known as North American (NA) Type 1 PRRSV, appeared in United States (U.S.) swine herds in 1999. Their diversity and evolution were studied over a five-year period by constructing phylogenetic trees using nsp2 and ORF5 sequences of 20 NA Type 1 isolates, including the(More)
Genomic sequence analysis demonstrates that porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) isolates are divided into distinct genotypes. Historically, swine herds in the U.S. have been infected with the PCV2a genotype. In 2005, PCV2b was identified in North America and with it increased reports of porcine circovirus disease (PCVD). A differential PCR technique(More)
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the most costly viral pathogen facing a modern pig industry. A unique feature of the virus is the ability to cause severe clinical disease and maintain a life-long subclinical infection. Persistence at the population level poses the biggest challenge for the successful control and elimination of(More)
To investigate porcine Toll-like receptors (TLR) responding to viral pathogen associated molecular patterns, the full-length cDNA of porcine TLR3 and TLR7 were identified and characterized. Porcine TLR3 and TLR7 cDNA encode 904- and 1050-amnio-acid polypeptides, respectively. Both porcine TLR3 and TLR7 contain typical functional TLR domains and share about(More)