Raymond P. Stowe

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The aged immune system is characterized by clonal expansions of CD8+ T cells of which a substantial portion are directed against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV). It is unknown if these expansions represent increased viral reactivation or simply reflect an accumulation over time. We investigated herpesvirus reactivation in young and old(More)
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to determine the effects of stress and spaceflight on levels of neuroendocrine hormones and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific antibodies in astronauts. METHODS Antiviral antibody titers and stress hormones were measured in plasma samples collected from 28 astronauts at their annual medical exam (baseline), 10 days(More)
Patterns of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation in 32 astronauts and 18 healthy age-matched control subjects were characterized by quantifying EBV shedding. Saliva samples were collected from astronauts before, during, and after 10 space shuttle missions of 5-14 days duration. At one time point or another, EBV was detected in saliva from each of the(More)
The reactivation of cytomegalovirus (CMV) in 71 astronauts was investigated, using polymerase chain reaction. A significantly greater (P<.0001) shedding frequency was found in urine samples from astronauts before spaceflight (10.6%) than in urine from the healthy control subject group (1.2%). Two of 4 astronauts studied during spaceflight shed CMV in urine.(More)
Herpesviruses are leading causes of infectious blindness and death in immunocompromised individuals. Impaired cellular immunity, which is known to result in increased frequency and severity of herpesvirus infections, has been demonstrated both during and after spaceflight. Therefore, we examined whether Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a well-characterized latent(More)
Post-flight data suggests immunity is dysregulated immediately following spaceflight, however this data may be influenced by the stress effects of high-G entry and readaptation to terrestrial gravity. It is unknown if immunity is altered during spaceflight. Blood samples were collected from 19 US Astronauts onboard the Space Shuttle ~24 h prior to landing(More)
OBJECTIVES Cocaine dependence is a chronic stress state. Furthermore, both stress and substance abuse have robust and reciprocal effects on immune system cytokines, which are known to be powerful modulators of mood. We therefore examine basal and provoked changes in peripheral cytokines in cocaine dependent individuals to better understand their role in the(More)
Recent data indicates that dysregulation of the immune system occurs and persists during spaceflight. Impairment of immunity, especially in conjunction with elevated radiation exposure and limited clinical care, may increase certain health risks during exploration-class deep space missions (i.e. to an asteroid or Mars). Research must thoroughly characterize(More)
Latent virus reactivation and diurnal salivary cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone were measured prospectively in 17 astronauts (16 male and 1 female) before, during, and after short-duration (12-16 days) Space Shuttle missions. Blood, urine, and saliva samples were collected during each of these phases. Antiviral antibodies and viral load (DNA) were(More)
Psychological stress can contribute to health disparities in populations that are confronted with the recurring stress of everyday life. A number of biomarkers have been shown to be affected by psychological stress. These biomarkers include allostatic load, which is a summary measure of the cumulative biological burden of the repeated attempts to adapt to(More)