Raymond M. Welsh

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Antiviral T cells are thought to regulate whether hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections result in viral control, asymptomatic persistence or severe disease, although the reasons for these different outcomes remain unclear. Recent genetic evidence, however, has indicated a correlation between certain natural killer(More)
We show here that T cell cross-reactivity between heterologous viruses influences the immunodominance of virus-specific CD8+ T cells by two mechanisms. First, T cells specific for cross-reactive epitopes dominate acute responses to viral infections; second, within the memory pool, T cells specific for cross-reactive epitopes are maintained while those(More)
Memory T cells that are specific for one virus can become activated during infection with an unrelated heterologous virus, and might have roles in protective immunity and immunopathology. The course of each infection is influenced by the T-cell memory pool that has been laid down by a host's history of previous infections, and with each successive(More)
CD8 T cell cross-reactivity between viruses can play roles in protective heterologous immunity and damaging immunopathology. This cross-reactivity is sometimes predictable, such as between lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and Pichinde virus, where cross-reactive epitopes share six out of eight amino acids. Here, however, we demonstrate more subtle(More)
Using a variety of techniques, including limiting dilution assays (LDA), intracellular IFNgamma assays, and Db-IgG1 MHC dimer staining to measure viral peptide-specific T cell number and function, we show here that heterologous virus infections quantitatively delete and qualitatively alter the memory pool of T cells specific to a previously encountered(More)
Experiments designed to distinguish virus-specific from non-virus-specific T cells showed that bystander T cells underwent apoptosis and substantial attrition in the wake of a strong T-cell response. Memory CD8 T cells (CD8(+) CD44(hi)) were most affected. During acute viral infection, transgenic T cells that were clearly defined as non-virus specific(More)
Experimental analyses of the acute cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response to viruses have focused on studying these infections in immunologically naive hosts. In the natural environment, however, viral CTL responses occur in hosts that are already immune to other infectious agents. To address which factors contribute to the maintenance and waning of(More)
A potent role for memory CD8+ T cells in heterologous immunity was shown with a respiratory mucosal model of viral infection. Memory CD8+ T cells generated after lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection were functionally activated in vivo to produce interferon-γ (IFN-γ) during acute infection with vaccinia virus (VV). Some of these(More)
Profound lymphopenia has been observed during many acute viral infections, and our laboratory has previously documented a type I IFN-dependent loss of CD8 T cells immediately preceding the development of the antiviral T cell response. Most memory (CD44(high)) and some naive (CD44(low)) CD8 T cells are susceptible to IFN-induced attrition, and we show in(More)