Raymond K. Y. Tong

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Recent studies have shown that epinephrine (E), norepinephrine (NE), and isoproterenol (I) caus'e substantial pulmonary shunting. This study was undertaken to determine the role of alpha (pulmonary vasconconstriction) and beta (pulmonary vasodilatation) adrenergic stimulation in the pathogenesis of pulmonary insufficiency. Forty-three mechanically(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are characterized by abnormal central processing with altered brain activation in response to visceral nociceptive signals. The effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on IBS patients is unclear. The study is set to study the effect of EA on brain activation during noxious rectal distension in IBS(More)
Background and Purpose. Stroke survivors often show a limited recovery in the hand function to perform delicate motions, such as full hand grasping, finger pinching and individual finger movement. The purpose of this study is to describe the implementation of an exoskeleton robotic hand together with fine finger motor skill training on 2 chronic stroke(More)
While constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) is one of the most promising techniques for upper limb rehabilitation after stroke, it requires high residual function to start with. Robotic device, on the other hand, can provide intention-driven assistance and is proven capable to complement conventional therapy. However, with many robotic devices focus on(More)
Active initiation and participation in the rehabilitation is a key of success for stroke rehabilitation. To patients with stroke, the interactive robotic system would motivate them to actively interact with the system during the task-related training regime. The system used muscle activation from affected limbs as control signal. The system was designed to(More)
An intravenous infusion of norepinephrine, 2 microgram/kg/min, for 5 hr in anesthetized, mechanically ventilated dogs produced a statistically significant increase in the pulmonary shunt, the cardiac output, and the mean pulmonary artery pressure, but no significant change in the pulmonary wedge pressure and the pulmonary vascular resistance except at 5(More)
Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) cycling could benefit people with Spinal Cord Injury (SCI). The FES cycling involves large muscle groups during the training, and thus improves the cardiovascular function, increases the muscle bulk and reduces the secondary complications. This study developed an outdoor FES exercise cycling system for complete SCI(More)
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