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It has been hypothesized on the basis of animal models of epilepsy that abnormal neural activity in epilepsy may be related to reorganized neural circuits that facilitate epileptogenesis. Little evidence of this was available for human epilepsy. This paper provides the first evidence of such reorganization of a hippocampal seizure focus in human temporal(More)
Although neuropeptides have been demonstrated to be hippocampal neuromodulators in laboratory animals, their role in human hippocampal physiology or pathophysiology remains to be defined. The concentrations of somatostatin, cholecystokinin octapeptide, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, and dynorphin A 1-17 were determined in hippocampal tissue resected(More)
Excessive stimulation of neurons by glutamic acid initiates a destructive cascade of ion fluxes, cellular swelling, and death. Homeostatic mechanisms which rectify these disturbances depend largely upon transmembrane ion gradients maintained by Na+,K(+)-ATPase (NaP). We proposed that the neurotoxicity of glutamate is enhanced when the NaP capacity is(More)
The influence of cortical neurotransmitters and cyclic AMP on the release of immunoreactive somatostatin (IRS)from cultured cortical cells was examined. Cells were obtained by mechanoenzymatic dispersal of telencephalons of 17-day-old rat embryos and were maintained as monolayers in minimum essential medium with 10% heat-inactivated horse serum. After the(More)
OBJECTIVE To contrast the neuropsychological profiles of Parkinsonian patients, before and after fetal ventral mesencephalic tissue transplantation. DESIGN Case series of personally examined patients. SETTING Patients were evaluated by neurologists, neurosurgeons, and neuropsychologists as outpatients at a university hospital. PATIENTS Fetal(More)
Na+,K(+)-ATPase (the sodium pump) is a family of proteins consisting of catalytic (alpha) and glycoprotein (beta) subunit isoforms which are differentially expressed in excitable tissue. To gain insight into the cell-type distribution of sodium pump protein, we determined the expression pattern of fetal rat telencephalic cultures, of telencephalic cultures(More)
The effects of exposure to acute mild footshock stress on concentrations of neurotensin-, somatostatin-, and corticotropin-releasing factor-like immunoreactivity (li) in mesotelencephalic dopamine system regions of the rat were examined. Mild stress exposure resulted in a selective and regionally specific increase in neurotensin-li concentrations in the(More)
Tissues from products of conception were examined to determine the feasibility of obtaining viable neural tissue after suction abortion at 9-12 weeks of gestation. The ventral mesencephalon, a prototype region whose maturation can be monitored and which is a potential tissue for transplantation, was identified in 32 of 120 cases. The tissue was then(More)
Studies in animals suggest that fetal neural grafts might restore lost neurological function in Parkinson's disease. In monkeys, such grafts survive for many months and reverse signs of parkinsonism, without attendant graft rejection. The successful and reliable application of a similar transplantation procedure to human patients, however, will require(More)
Both fresh and cryopreserved-thawed human fetal ventral mesencephalon have been used for preclinical research and implantation into the brains of patients with Parkinson's disease. Further characterization and an evaluation of the effects of cryopreservation on immunocytochemical and neurochemical markers of monoamine neurons in human fetal ventral(More)