Raymond J. Layton

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An international initiative is developing a scientifically rigorous approach to evaluate the potential risks to nontarget arthropods (NTAs) posed by insect-resistant, genetically modified (IRGM) crops. It adapts the tiered approach to risk assessment that is used internationally within regulatory toxicology and environmental sciences. The approach focuses(More)
Representatives of the developers of modern agricultural biotechnology are proposing a tiered approach for conducting non-target organism risk assessment for genetically modified (GM) plants in Europe. The approach was developed by the Technical Advisory Group of the EuropaBio Plant Biotechnology Unit (http://www.europabio.org/TAG.htm) and complements other(More)
59122 is a transgenic maize line containing event DAS-59122-7 that expresses the corn rootworm (CRW) specific pesticidal Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Berliner strain PS149B1 and the phosphinothricin-N-acetyltransferase (PAT) protein from Streptomyces viridochromogenes for tolerance to the herbicidal ingredient(More)
Acetolactate synthase (ALS) enzymes have been isolated from numerous organisms including soybeans (Glycine max; GM-ALS) and catalyze the first common step in biosynthesis of branched chain amino acids. Expression of an ALS protein (GM-HRA) with two amino acid changes relative to native GM-ALS protein in genetically modified soybeans confers tolerance to(More)
Maize line 1507, containing event DAS-Ø15Ø7-1 (1507), is a genetically modified (GM) maize plant that expresses the cry1F gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) sbsp. aizawai and the phosphinothricin-N-acetyltransferase (pat) gene from Streptomyces viridochromogenes throughout the plant including in the grain expression of the Cry1F protein confers in planta(More)
Event DP-356Ø43-5 (356043; Optimum GAT) is a genetically modified soybean (Glycine max) that was produced by insertion of the gat4601 and gm-hra genes. The expression products of these genes are the glyphosate acetyltransferase 4601 and acetolactate synthase proteins, respectively. Expression of the glyphosate acetyltransferase 4601 protein confers(More)
One source of potential harm from the cultivation of transgenic crops is their dispersal, persistence and spread in non-agricultural land. Ecological damage may result from such spread if the abundance of valued species is reduced. The ability of a plant to spread in non-agricultural habitats is called its invasiveness potential. The risks posed by the(More)
Field studies were conducted over a 3-yr period to investigate the potential effects of cultivating transgenic maize hybrids containing a Cry1F insect-resistant protein on nontarget arthropod abundance. The narrow spectrum of activity of Cry1F against a subset of lepidopteran pest species would not suggest broad-spectrum effects on nontarget arthropods.(More)
A genetically modified maize (Zea mays L.) line that contains the Optimum GAT trait (event DP-Ø9814Ø-6; 98140) was produced by integration of the gat4621 and zm-hra genes. The expressed GAT4621 and ZM-HRA proteins confer tolerance to the herbicidal active ingredient glyphosate and acetolactate synthase-inhibiting herbicides, respectively. The objective of(More)
Although public opinion is important in deciding what is valued by society, governments have determined that scientific expertise is required to evaluate potential environmental effects of genetically modified (GM) crops. We suggest how to evaluate rigorously the environmental effects of GM crops in the context of a scientific investigation. Following a(More)