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Enduring forms of synaptic plasticity and memory require new protein synthesis, but little is known about the underlying regulatory mechanisms. Here, we investigate the role of MAPK signaling in these processes. Conditional expression of a dominant-negative form of MEK1 in the postnatal murine forebrain inhibited ERK activation and caused selective deficits(More)
Memory and synaptic plasticity exhibit distinct temporal phases, with long-lasting forms distinguished by their dependence on macromolecular synthesis. Prevailing models for the molecular mechanisms underlying long-lasting synaptic plasticity have largely focused on transcriptional regulation. However, a growing body of evidence now supports a crucial role(More)
Long-term memory and its putative synaptic correlates the late phases of both long-term potentiation and long-term depression require enhanced protein synthesis. On the basis of recent data on translation-dependent synaptic plasticity and on the supralinear effect of activation of nearby synapses on action potential generation, we propose a model for the(More)
Mutations in presenilins are the major cause of familial Alzheimer's disease, but the pathogenic mechanism by which presenilin mutations cause memory loss and neurodegeneration remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that conditional double knockout mice lacking both presenilins in the postnatal forebrain exhibit impairments in hippocampal memory and synaptic(More)
Dominantly inherited mutations in the genes encoding presenilins (PS) and the amyloid precursor protein (APP) are the major causes of familial Alzheimer's disease (AD). The prevailing view of AD pathogenesis posits that accumulation of beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptides, particularly Abeta42, is the central event triggering neurodegeneration. Emerging evidence,(More)
Transcription initiation by RNA polymerase II is effected by an ordered series of general factor interactions with core promoter elements (leading to basal activity) and further regulated by gene-specific factors acting from distal elements. Both the general factor TFIID (refs 2,3), including the constituent TBP (TATA-binding polypeptide) and associated(More)
Presenilins play essential roles in memory formation, synaptic function, and neuronal survival. Mutations in the Presenilin-1 (PSEN1) gene are the major cause of familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD). How PSEN1 mutations cause FAD is unclear, and pathogenic mechanisms based on gain or loss of function have been proposed. Here, we generated Psen1 knockin (KI)(More)
Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are the most common genetic cause of Parkinson's disease. LRRK2 is a large protein containing a small GTPase domain and a kinase domain, but its physiological role is unknown. To identify the normal function of LRRK2 in vivo, we generated two independent lines of germ-line deletion mice. The dopaminergic(More)
The Tsx gene resides at the X-inactivation center and is thought to encode a protein expressed in testis, but its function has remained mysterious. Given its proximity to noncoding genes that regulate X-inactivation, here we characterize Tsx and determine its function in mice. We find that Tsx is actually noncoding and the long transcript is expressed(More)
Mutations in presenilin-1 and presenilin-2 (PS1 and PS2) are the most common cause of familial Alzheimer disease. PS1 and PS2 are the presumptive catalytic components of the multisubunit gamma-secretase complex, which proteolyzes a number of type I transmembrane proteins, including the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and Notch. APP processing by(More)