Raymond G. Hoffmann

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Measures of postural steadiness are used to characterize the dynamics of the postural control system associated with maintaining balance during quiet standing. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relative sensitivity of center-of-pressure (COP)-based measures to changes in postural steadiness related to age. A variety of time and frequency(More)
OBJECTIVE Nicotine is a highly addictive substance, and cigarette smoking is a major cause of premature death among humans. Little is known about the neuropharmacology and sites of action of nicotine in the human brain. Such knowledge might help in the development of new behavioral and pharmacological therapies to aid in treating nicotine dependence and to(More)
OBJECTIVE To define epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of newly diagnosed pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in a large population-based model. STUDY DESIGN All pediatric gastroenterologists providing care for Wisconsin children voluntarily identified all new cases of IBD during a 2-year period. Demographic and clinical data were sent to a(More)
Modern theories of drug dependence hold the hedonic effects of drug-taking central to understanding the motivation for compulsive drug use. Previous neuroimaging studies have begun to identify brain regions associated with acute drug effects after passive delivery. In this study, a more naturalistic model of cocaine self-administration (SA) was employed in(More)
Earlier studies have shown that the cross-sectional area of the deglutitive upper esophageal sphincter (UES) opening in healthy asymptomatic elderly individuals is reduced compared with healthy young volunteers. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a head-raising exercise on swallow-induced UES opening and hypopharyngeal intrabolus pressure(More)
Effect of aging, bolus volume, temperature, and consistency on the pharyngeal peristalsis, as well as the effect of aging on the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) resting pressure and its response to esophageal distension by air and balloon, were studied in 14 young and 12 healthy elderly volunteers. In both age groups there was no significant volume or(More)
The objective of this study was to determine the impact of family income and sickle cell disease on the health-related quality of life (HRQL) of children. This was a cross-sectional study of children with and without sickle cell disease. Participants completed the PedsQL™ generic core scales parent-proxy or child self-report questionnaire during a routine(More)
OBJECTIVES:Clostridium difficile–associated disease (CDAD) is associated with antibiotic use, acid suppression, and hospitalization, all of which occur frequently in cirrhosis. The aim was to define the effect of CDAD on outcomes and identify risk factors for its development in cirrhosis.METHODS:Case–control studies using the de-identified national(More)
HIV prevalence is alarmingly high among persons with serious mental illness and severely mentally ill adults frequently engage in high-risk behavior practices. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a small-group HIV risk reduction intervention offered to 189 men and women in outpatient programs for severely mentally ill adults. Participants screened for(More)
Neuropsychological and neuroimaging changes have been observed in individuals with the Huntington's disease (HD) gene expansion prior to the onset of manifest HD. This cross-sectional fMRI study of preclinical HD (pre-HD) individuals was conducted to determine if functional brain changes precede deficits in behavioral performance and striatal atrophy.(More)