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Uncontrolled diabetes results in enhanced expression of cytochrome P-450 (CYP)2E1, CYP2B, CYP3A, and CYP4A. Because of the simultaneous and confounding metabolic and hormonal changes that occur in vivo as a consequence of diabetes, primary cultured rat hepatocytes provide an excellent model system for examination of the effects of insulin on P-450(More)
Although hyperketonemia and/or altered growth hormone secretion caused by diabetes have been implicated in enhanced CYP2E1, 2B, 3A and 4A expression, the effect of insulin on hepatic P450 expression, in the absence of associated metabolic/hormonal alterations, remains unknown. Primary cultured rat hepatocytes have been shown (Zangar et al., Drug Metab.(More)
The molecular mechanisms by which dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) enhances CYP3A protein in phenobarbital-treated primary cultured rat hepatocytes were examined. DMSO treatment rapidly increased CYP3A protein levels in the absence of an increase in CYP3A mRNA levels or an increase in CYP2B protein or mRNA levels. CYP3A levels were increased approximately 3.7- and(More)
BACKGROUND Diabetes is a major threat to public health in the United States and worldwide. Understanding the role of environmental chemicals in the development or progression of diabetes is an emerging issue in environmental health. OBJECTIVE We assessed the epidemiologic literature for evidence of associations between persistent organic pollutants (POPs)(More)
Several microRNAs (miRNAs) were selected for characterization of their response to insulin signaling based on in silico predictions of targeting CYP2E1 mRNA and previous reports implicating their role in hepatic metabolism and disease. CYP2E1 expression decreases with increasing insulin concentration and has been shown to be regulated by the(More)
Decreased glutathione (GSH) levels and gamma-glutamylcysteine ligase (GCL) activity have been observed in diabetic patients, and insulin reportedly increases GSH synthesis via increased GCL catalytic subunit (GCLC) gene expression. The signaling pathways responsible for mediating insulin effects on GCLC expression and GSH levels, however, are unknown. The(More)
Half of the survivors of bacterial meningitis experience motor deficits, seizures, hearing loss or cognitive impairment, despite adequate bacterial killing by antibiotics. We demonstrate that the broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethyl-ketone (z-VAD-fmk) prevented hippocampal neuronal cell death and white blood cell(More)
Streptococcus pneumoniae, the pneumococcus, is the most common cause of sepsis and meningitis. Multiple-antibiotic-resistant strains are widespread, and vancomycin is the antibiotic of last resort. Emergence of vancomycin resistance in this community-acquired bacterium would be catastrophic. Antibiotic tolerance, the ability of bacteria to survive but not(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) production by inducible NO synthase (iNOS) during inflammation is an essential element of antimicrobial immunity but can also contribute to host-induced tissue damage. Under conditions of bacterial sepsis, large amounts of NO are produced, causing hypotension, a critical pathological feature of septic shock. In sepsis caused by(More)
Results of comparative studies on stimulation of the rates of cofactor consumption, superoxide generation and hydrogen peroxide production by mitoxantrone (Novantrone; dihydroxyanthracenedione; MXN), ametantrone (AM), doxorubicin (DOX) and daunorubicin (DNR) in the presence of NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase, NADH dehydrogenase, or rabbit hepatic(More)