Learn More
Estimating the costs of health interventions is important to policy-makers for a number of reasons including the fact that the results can be used as a component in the assessment and improvement of their health system performance. Costs can, for example, be used to assess if scarce resources are being used efficiently or whether there is scope to(More)
BACKGROUND Cardiovascular disease accounts for much morbidity and mortality in developed countries and is becoming increasingly important in less developed regions. Systolic blood pressure above 115 mm Hg accounts for two-thirds of strokes and almost half of ischaemic heart disease cases, and cholesterol concentrations exceeding 3.8 mmol/L for 18% and 55%,(More)
Evidence on the cost and cost-effectiveness of treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is limited, and no published data are available from former Soviet Union countries, where rates of MDR-TB are highest globally. We evaluated the cost and cost-effectiveness of MDR-TB treatment in Estonia and Russia (Tomsk Oblast), comparing cohorts enrolled(More)
Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is potentially an important aid to public health decision-making but, with some notable exceptions, its use and impact at the level of individual countries is limited. A number of potential reasons may account for this, among them technical shortcomings associated with the generation of current economic evidence, political(More)
Dengue vaccines are currently in development and policymakers need appropriate economic studies to determine their potential financial and public health impact. We searched five databases (PubMed, EMBASE, LILAC, EconLit, and WHOLIS) to identify health economics studies of dengue. Forty-three manuscripts were identified that provided primary data: 32 report(More)
Traditional EPI vaccines are considered to be among the most efficient uses of scarce health care resources. Today, there are many under-used and new vaccines available. In the short- to medium-term, these vaccines will not cost the few cents per dose the traditional vaccines do, but will be 'multi-dollar' vaccines. Decision-makers will need information,(More)
BACKGROUND The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that the cost effectiveness of introducing human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is considered before such a strategy is implemented. However, developing countries often lack the technical capacity to perform and interpret results of economic appraisals of vaccines. To provide information about the(More)
Interest is growing in the application of standard statistical inferential techniques to the calculation of cost-effectiveness ratios (CER), but individual level data will not be available in many cases because it is very difficult to undertake prospective controlled trials of many public health interventions. We propose the application of probabilistic(More)
In this study we estimated the indirect costs of back pain in 1991 in The Netherlands on the basis of two approaches: the traditionally used human capital method and the more recently developed friction cost method. The indirect costs of illness were defined as the value of production losses of paid labour and related costs to society due to back pain. The(More)
The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that the cost-effectiveness (CE) of introducing new vaccines be considered before such a programme is implemented. However, in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), it is often challenging to perform and interpret the results of model-based economic appraisals of vaccines that benefit from locally relevant(More)