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Four rats responded under a "self-control" procedure designed to obtain delay-discount functions within sessions. Each session consisted of seven blocks, with seven trials within each block. Each block consisted of two initial forced-choice trials followed by five free-choice trials. On choice trials, the rats could press either of two retractable levers. A(More)
By examining naturalistic conceptions of moral maturity, this project sought a more comprehensive understanding of moral excellence than is evident in dominant theories of moral development. Studies 1 and 2 involved different samples of 120 adults (17-25, 35-55, and 65+ years). Study 3 involved a sample of 180 undergraduates. In Study 1, a free-listing(More)
The purpose of the present research was to utilize quantitative methods to identify behavioral mechanisms involved in the effects of stimulant drugs on choice in a self-control procedure. A logarithmic equation based upon a combination of the matching law and hyperbolic discounting was used to separate drug-induced changes in sensitivity to reinforcement(More)
In the present study, effects of d-amphetamine on sensitivity to reinforcement amount under concurrent schedules were examined using a rapid-acquisition procedure. Four pigeons key pecked under single concurrent variable-interval 30-s schedules of grain presentation. Two different reinforcer-amount ratios (7:1 and 1:7) changed across sessions according to a(More)
Four pigeons were trained on concurrent variable-interval 30-s schedules. Relative reinforcer amounts arranged across the two alternatives were varied across sessions according to a pseudorandom binary sequence [cf., Hunter, I., Davison, M., 1985. Determination of a behavioral transfer function: white-noise analysis of session-to-session response-ratio(More)
Identity matching-to-sample has been difficult to demonstrate in rats, but most studies have used visual stimuli. There is evidence that rats can acquire complex forms of olfactory stimulus control, and the present study explored the possibility that identity matching might be facilitated in rats if olfactory stimuli were used. Four rats were trained on an(More)
The opioid agonists morphine, etorphine, buprenorphine and U50,488 were examined alone and in combination with the insurmountable opioid antagonist clocinnamox (C-CAM) in squirrel monkeys responding under a schedule of shock titration. In this procedure, shock intensity increased every 15 sec from 0.01 to 2.0 mA in 30 increments. Five lever presses during(More)
Repeated-acquisition procedures that include performance controls for effects not specific to acquisition permit the assessment of drug effects on learning on a within-subject, within-session basis. Despite the advantages of this methodology, few studies have examined effects of psychomotor stimulants on repeated acquisition in rodents. The purpose of the(More)
The purpose of this study was to examine effects of d-amphetamine on choice controlled by reinforcement delay. Eight pigeons responded under a concurrent-chains procedure in which one terminal-link schedule was always fixed-interval 8 s, and the other terminal-link schedule changed from session to session between fixed-interval 4 s and fixed-interval 16 s(More)
Key pecking by pigeons was maintained on a chained fixed-interval 4-min (12-min for 1 subject) fixed-ratio 1 schedule of food presentation. Attacks toward a restrained and protected conspecific were recorded. In the first experiment, the amount of food presented per interval was manipulated across phases by varying the number of fixed ratios required in the(More)