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Four rats responded under a "self-control" procedure designed to obtain delay-discount functions within sessions. Each session consisted of seven blocks, with seven trials within each block. Each block consisted of two initial forced-choice trials followed by five free-choice trials. On choice trials, the rats could press either of two retractable levers. A(More)
Effects of the kappa opioid agonists, spiradoline (U62,066), enadoline (CI-977) and U69,593, were examined alone and in combination with the opioid antagonists quadazocine and beta-funaltrexamine in squirrel monkeys that responded under a schedule of shock titration. When given alone, each of these agonists increased the intensity at which the monkeys(More)
By examining naturalistic conceptions of moral maturity, this project sought a more comprehensive understanding of moral excellence than is evident in dominant theories of moral development. Studies 1 and 2 involved different samples of 120 adults (17-25, 35-55, and 65+ years). Study 3 involved a sample of 180 undergraduates. In Study 1, a free-listing(More)
The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the development of tolerance to the effects of morphine and other mu opioids in rats responding under a fixed-consecutive-number (FCN) schedule of food presentation. To this end, five rats were trained under an FCN schedule and subsequently tested with a variety of mu opioids both before and during(More)
Effects of morphine and 2 N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists, phencyclidine and LY235959, were studied using a within-subject, repeated-acquisition/performance procedure adapted to the Morris Swim Task. In the performance component, subjects swam to a hidden platform that was always in the same location in the pool. In the acquisition(More)
In the present study, effects of d-amphetamine on sensitivity to reinforcement amount under concurrent schedules were examined using a rapid-acquisition procedure. Four pigeons key pecked under single concurrent variable-interval 30-s schedules of grain presentation. Two different reinforcer-amount ratios (7:1 and 1:7) changed across sessions according to a(More)
Four pigeons were trained on concurrent variable-interval 30-s schedules. Relative reinforcer amounts arranged across the two alternatives were varied across sessions according to a pseudorandom binary sequence [cf., Hunter, I., Davison, M., 1985. Determination of a behavioral transfer function: white-noise analysis of session-to-session response-ratio(More)
The purpose of the present research was to utilize quantitative methods to identify behavioral mechanisms involved in the effects of stimulant drugs on choice in a self-control procedure. A logarithmic equation based upon a combination of the matching law and hyperbolic discounting was used to separate drug-induced changes in sensitivity to reinforcement(More)
Some classes of drugs can selectively affect learning (i.e., acquisition of behavior) at doses that do not affect performance (i.e., previously learned behavior). Some drugs (e.g., benzodiazepines) show selective effects on acquisition across a wide variety of tasks. Other drugs [e.g., N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) antagonists and opiate agonists], however,(More)
The purpose of this study was to examine effects of d-amphetamine on choice controlled by reinforcement delay. Eight pigeons responded under a concurrent-chains procedure in which one terminal-link schedule was always fixed-interval 8 s, and the other terminal-link schedule changed from session to session between fixed-interval 4 s and fixed-interval 16 s(More)