Raymond C. Pitts

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Four rats responded under a "self-control" procedure designed to obtain delay-discount functions within sessions. Each session consisted of seven blocks, with seven trials within each block. Each block consisted of two initial forced-choice trials followed by five free-choice trials. On choice trials, the rats could press either of two retractable levers. A(More)
By examining naturalistic conceptions of moral maturity, this project sought a more comprehensive understanding of moral excellence than is evident in dominant theories of moral development. Studies 1 and 2 involved different samples of 120 adults (17-25, 35-55, and 65+ years). Study 3 involved a sample of 180 undergraduates. In Study 1, a free-listing(More)
Effects of the kappa opioid agonists, spiradoline (U62,066), enadoline (CI-977) and U69,593, were examined alone and in combination with the opioid antagonists quadazocine and beta-funaltrexamine in squirrel monkeys that responded under a schedule of shock titration. When given alone, each of these agonists increased the intensity at which the monkeys(More)
Log-survivor analyses of interresponse times suggest that the behavior of rats responding under single variable-interval schedules is organized into bouts (i.e., periods of engagement and disengagement). Attempts to generalize this analysis to the key pecking in pigeons, however, have failed to produce the characteristic broken-stick appearance typically(More)
The opioid agonists morphine, etorphine, buprenorphine and U50,488 were examined alone and in combination with the insurmountable opioid antagonist clocinnamox (C-CAM) in squirrel monkeys responding under a schedule of shock titration. In this procedure, shock intensity increased every 15 sec from 0.01 to 2.0 mA in 30 increments. Five lever presses during(More)
The purpose of the present research was to utilize quantitative methods to identify behavioral mechanisms involved in the effects of stimulant drugs on choice in a self-control procedure. A logarithmic equation based upon a combination of the matching law and hyperbolic discounting was used to separate drug-induced changes in sensitivity to reinforcement(More)
The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the development of tolerance to the effects of morphine and other mu opioids in rats responding under a fixed-consecutive-number (FCN) schedule of food presentation. To this end, five rats were trained under an FCN schedule and subsequently tested with a variety of mu opioids both before and during(More)
Effects of morphine and 2 N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists, phencyclidine and LY235959, were studied using a within-subject, repeated-acquisition/performance procedure adapted to the Morris Swim Task. In the performance component, subjects swam to a hidden platform that was always in the same location in the pool. In the acquisition(More)
Identity matching-to-sample has been difficult to demonstrate in rats, but most studies have used visual stimuli. There is evidence that rats can acquire complex forms of olfactory stimulus control, and the present study explored the possibility that identity matching might be facilitated in rats if olfactory stimuli were used. Four rats were trained on an(More)
Four pigeons were trained on concurrent variable-interval 30-s schedules. Relative reinforcer amounts arranged across the two alternatives were varied across sessions according to a pseudorandom binary sequence [cf., Hunter, I., Davison, M., 1985. Determination of a behavioral transfer function: white-noise analysis of session-to-session response-ratio(More)