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Ten Sloan letters were used in the visual acuity charts developed for use in the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study. We used the data from the 3,710 Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study subjects to investigate the relative difficulty of the ten Sloan letters and to evaluate whether the position of a letter on a line affected its relative(More)
Ophthalmologic examinations for cataract, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, macular degeneration and visual acuity were performed on 2631 of the 3977 members of the Framingham (Massachusetts) Heart Study population still living in 1973-1975. The subjects ranged in age from 52 to 85 years. This monograph presents the detailed protocols and record forms for(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether the vitamin/mineral supplements used in two cancer intervention trials affected the risk of developing age-related cataracts. DESIGN Two randomized, double-masked trials with a duration of 5 to 6 years and end-of-trial eye examinations. SETTING Rural communes in Linxian, China. PARTICIPANTS In trial 1, 2141 participants(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate associations with biochemical indicators of nutritional and other risk factors in the Lens Opacities Case-Control Study. DESIGN Case-control study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS The Lens Opacities Case-Control Study determined risk factors for cortical, nuclear, and posterior subcapsular opacities among 1380 participants aged 40 to 79(More)
In a hospital-based case-control study of 1441 patients with age-related cataracts and 549 controls, we studied associations between types of cataract--nuclear, cortical, posterior subcapsular, and mixed--and a number of physiologic, behavioral, environmental, and biochemical variables. Using polychotomous logistic regression analysis, we found an increased(More)
Framingham Eye Study data were used to examine the effect of alternative definitions of open-angle glaucoma (OAG) on prevalence and on associations with selected variables from the Framingham Heart Study. Definitions were based on various combinations of history of glaucoma, types of visual field defects, and functions of intraocular pressure and cup-disc(More)
To explore the existence of a dose-response relationship between sunlight exposure and risk of age-related cataracts, we analyzed data collected from 1008 patients with cataracts and 469 control subjects enrolled in the Italian-American Case-Control Study of Age-Related Cataracts. Fourteen variables related to sunlight exposure history were included in the(More)
BACKGROUND Clinical vitamin A deficiency affects millions of children worldwide, and subclinical deficiency is even more common. Supplemental vitamin A has been reported to reduce mortality among these children, but the results have been questioned. METHODS We conducted a randomized, controlled, masked clinical trial for one year in southern India(More)
Falls affect a large proportion of the elderly and can result in a variety of injuries, including hip fractures. Several studies have suggested that visual impairment contributes to falls, but studies have not used standardized definitions of visual impairment and have not examined injurious falls or fractures. We looked at the risk of hip fracture(More)
Incidence, duration, and severity of diarrhea and respiratory symptoms were monitored weekly for 1 y in 15,419 children 6-60 mo of age in a randomized, placebo-controlled, masked clinical trial conducted in southern India. Half the children received weekly doses of 8.7 mumol (2500 microgram) vitamin A and 46 mumol (20 mg) vitamin E (treated) and the other(More)