Raymond A. Koski

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West Nile virus (WNV), and related flaviviruses such as tick-borne encephalitis, Japanese encephalitis, yellow fever and dengue viruses, constitute a significant global human health problem. However, our understanding of the molecular interaction of such flaviviruses with mammalian host cells is limited. WNV encodes only 10 proteins, implying that it may(More)
The Lyme disease agent, Borrelia burgdorferi, is maintained in a tick-mouse cycle. Here we show that B. burgdorferi usurps a tick salivary protein, Salp15 (ref. 3), to facilitate the infection of mice. The level of salp15 expression was selectively enhanced by the presence of B. burgdorferi in Ixodes scapularis, first indicating that spirochaetes might use(More)
The neu/HER-2 proto-oncogene (also called erbB-2) encodes a transmembrane glycoprotein related to the epidermal growth factor receptor. We have purified to homogeneity a 44 kd glycoprotein from the medium of ras-transformed cells that stimulates phosphorylation of the Neu protein and retains activity after elution from the polyacrylamide gel. The protein is(More)
The tick Ixodes scapularis is an efficient vector for microbes, including the Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferi. Ticks engorging on vertebrates induce recruitment of inflammatory cells to the bite site. For efficient transmission to the vector, pathogens have to traffic through this complex feeding site while avoiding the deleterious effects of immune(More)
West Nile virus, a member of the Flavivirus genus, causes fever that can progress to life-threatening encephalitis. The major envelope glycoprotein, E, of these viruses mediates viral attachment and entry by membrane fusion. We have determined the crystal structure of a soluble fragment of West Nile virus E. The structure adopts the same overall fold as(More)
West Nile (WN) virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that emerged in the United States in 1999 and can cause fatal encephalitis. Envelope (E) protein cDNA from a WN virus isolate recovered from Culex pipiens in Connecticut was expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant E protein was purified and used as Ag in immunoblot assays and immunization(More)
Using biochemical and molecular approaches, we have identified a 9.8 kDa protein in the saliva of Ixodes scapularis that inhibits the intrinsic pathway of coagulation. The 9.8 kDa anticoagulant protein was purified by reverse-phase HPLC and its N-terminal amino acid sequence determined. The N-terminal sequence showed homology with Salp14, an immuno-dominant(More)
Inflammatory malignant fibrous histiocytomas (IMFH) are rare tumors and are frequently associated with leukocytosis. In rare cases, leukemoid reactions were attributed to tumor production of unidentified hematopoietic factors. In this study, we used immunohistochemical techniques to show cytokine immunoreactivity in the malignant cells of two cases of IMFH(More)
The TIS21 gene is a primary response gene that is induced rapidly and transiently in 3T3 cells by the tumor promoter and mitogen tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate. The predicted open reading frame of the TIS21 cDNA encodes a protein of 158 amino acids with no obvious similarity to any known protein. Antiserum prepared to TIS21 recombinant protein produced in(More)
Egr-1 is an immediate-early response gene induced by diverse signals that initiate growth and differentiation. Its cDNA sequence predicts a protein with zinc fingers. We have generated an antiserum to the Egr-1 gene product and identified it as an 80-kilodalton short-lived protein in serum-stimulated mouse fibroblasts. The rat Egr-1 product has also been(More)