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The Lyme disease agent, Borrelia burgdorferi, is maintained in a tick-mouse cycle. Here we show that B. burgdorferi usurps a tick salivary protein, Salp15 (ref. 3), to facilitate the infection of mice. The level of salp15 expression was selectively enhanced by the presence of B. burgdorferi in Ixodes scapularis, first indicating that spirochaetes might use(More)
The neu/HER-2 proto-oncogene (also called erbB-2) encodes a transmembrane glycoprotein related to the epidermal growth factor receptor. We have purified to homogeneity a 44 kd glycoprotein from the medium of ras-transformed cells that stimulates phosphorylation of the Neu protein and retains activity after elution from the polyacrylamide gel. The protein is(More)
Proteins of the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) family bind and inactivate matrix metalloproteinases such as collagenases and gelatinases. We report the cloning and sequencing of cDNAs encoding a novel human TIMP, which we designated TIMP-3, the third member of the human TIMP family. Degenerate PCR primers derived from highly conserved regions(More)
West Nile virus, a member of the Flavivirus genus, causes fever that can progress to life-threatening encephalitis. The major envelope glycoprotein, E, of these viruses mediates viral attachment and entry by membrane fusion. We have determined the crystal structure of a soluble fragment of West Nile virus E. The structure adopts the same overall fold as(More)
The tick Ixodes scapularis is an efficient vector for microbes, including the Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferi. Ticks engorging on vertebrates induce recruitment of inflammatory cells to the bite site. For efficient transmission to the vector, pathogens have to traffic through this complex feeding site while avoiding the deleterious effects of immune(More)
Conditions for high-cell-density fermentations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains producing recombinant-DNA-derived proteins were established. Strains producing human immune interferon (IFN-gamma) from the constitutive PGK promoter failed to grow to high cell densities and exhibited low plasmid stability. Regulated expression of IFN-gamma was obtained in(More)
The TIS21 gene is a primary response gene that is induced rapidly and transiently in 3T3 cells by the tumor promoter and mitogen tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate. The predicted open reading frame of the TIS21 cDNA encodes a protein of 158 amino acids with no obvious similarity to any known protein. Antiserum prepared to TIS21 recombinant protein produced in(More)
West Nile virus (WNV), and related flaviviruses such as tick-borne encephalitis, Japanese encephalitis, yellow fever and dengue viruses, constitute a significant global human health problem. However, our understanding of the molecular interaction of such flaviviruses with mammalian host cells is limited. WNV encodes only 10 proteins, implying that it may(More)
West Nile virus (WNV) can cause fatal murine and human encephalitis. The viral envelope protein interacts with host cells. A murine brain cDNA phage display library was therefore probed with WNV envelope protein, resulting in the identification of several adherent peptides. Of these, peptide 1 prevented WNV infection in vitro with a 50% inhibition(More)