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The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat protein binds to an RNA stem-loop structure called TAR which is present at the 5' end of all human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transcripts. This binding is centered on a bulge within the stem of TAR and is an essential step in the trans-activation process which results in a dramatic increase in viral gene(More)
Transactivation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) gene expression requires binding of the viral Tat protein to a RNA hairpin-loop structure (TAR) which contains a two or three-nucleotide bulge. Tat binds in the vicinity of the bulge and the two adjacent duplex stems, recognising both specific sequence and structural features of TAR. Binding is mediated(More)
Double-stranded oligodeoxyribonucleotides or single-stranded oligoribonucleotides with specific secondary structure have been proposed as potential antagonists to target nucleic acid-binding proteins (the sense approach). A major limitation of this strategy is that these derivatives are generally considered to be too large for pharmaceutical applications.(More)
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