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Kallikrein 6 (K6) is a member of the kallikrein gene family that comprises 15 structurally and functionally related serine proteases. In prior studies we showed that, while this trypsin-like enzyme is preferentially expressed in neurons and oligodendroglia of the adult central nervous system (CNS), it is up-regulated at sites of injury due to expression by(More)
Live-attenuated strains of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) routinely confer apparent sterilizing immunity against pathogenic SIV challenge in rhesus macaques. Understanding the mechanisms of protection by live-attenuated SIV may provide important insights into the immune responses needed for protection against HIV-1. Here we investigated the development(More)
Multiple studies suggest that plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are depleted and dysfunctional during human immunodeficiency virus/simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV/SIV) infection, but little is known about pDCs in the gut-the primary site of virus replication. Here, we show that during SIV infection, pDCs were reduced 3--fold in the circulation and(More)
BACKGROUND Human killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) play a critical role in governing the immune response to neoplastic and infectious disease. Rhesus macaques serve as important animal models for many human diseases in which KIRs are implicated; however, the study of KIR activity in this model is hindered by incomplete characterization of KIR(More)
Molecular interactions between killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) and their MHC class I ligands play a central role in the regulation of natural killer (NK) cell responses to viral pathogens and tumors. Here we identify Mamu-A1*00201 (Mamu-A*02), a common MHC class I molecule in the rhesus macaque with a canonical Bw6 motif, as a ligand for(More)
BACKGROUND Although metastatic colon cancer is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide, the molecular mechanisms that enable colon cancer cells to metastasize remain unclear. Emerging evidence suggests that metastatic cells develop by usurping transcriptional networks from embryonic stem (ES) cells to facilitate an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT),(More)
Natural killer (NK) cells have traditionally been considered nonspecific components of innate immunity, but recent studies have shown features of antigen-specific memory in mouse NK cells. However, it has remained unclear whether this phenomenon also exists in primates. We found that splenic and hepatic NK cells from SHIV(SF162P3)-infected and(More)
Human NK (hNK) cells play a key role in mediating host immune responses against various infectious diseases. For practical reasons, the majority of the data on hNK cells has been generated using peripheral blood lymphocytes. In contrast, our knowledge of NK cells in human tissues is limited, and not much is known about developmental pathways of hNK cell(More)