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Natural killer (NK) cells contribute to control of HIV/SIV infection. We defined macaque NK-cell subsets based on expression of CD56 and CD16 and found their distribution to be highly disparate. CD16(+) NK cells predominated in peripheral blood, whereas most mucosal NK cells were CD56(+), and lymph nodes contained both CD56(+) and CD16(-)CD56(-)(More)
Live-attenuated strains of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) routinely confer apparent sterilizing immunity against pathogenic SIV challenge in rhesus macaques. Understanding the mechanisms of protection by live-attenuated SIV may provide important insights into the immune responses needed for protection against HIV-1. Here we investigated the development(More)
Natural killer (NK) cells are classically viewed as effector cells that kill virus-infected and neoplastic cells, but recent studies have identified a rare mucosal NK- cell subpopulation secreting the TH17 cytokine IL-22. Here, we report identification of 2 distinct lineages of mucosal NK cells characterized as NKG2A(+)NFIL3(+)RORC(-) and(More)
Kallikrein 6 (K6) is a member of the kallikrein gene family that comprises 15 structurally and functionally related serine proteases. In prior studies we showed that, while this trypsin-like enzyme is preferentially expressed in neurons and oligodendroglia of the adult central nervous system (CNS), it is up-regulated at sites of injury due to expression by(More)
Human killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) play a critical role in governing the immune response to neoplastic and infectious disease. Rhesus macaques serve as important animal models for many human diseases in which KIRs are implicated; however, the study of KIR activity in this model is hindered by incomplete characterization of KIR genetics. Here(More)
Ongoing antigenic stimulation appears to be an important prerequisite for the persistent expression of programmed death 1 (PD-1), an inhibitory TCR coreceptor of the CD28 family. Although recent publications have emphasized the utility of PD-1 as a marker for dysfunctional T cells in chronic viral infections, its dependence on antigenic stimulation(More)
Placental HIV infections frequently result in infected babies or miscarriage. Aberrant placental cytokine expression during HIV infections may facilitate transplacental viral transmission or pregnancy perturbation. The feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-infected cat is a model for HIV infections due to similarities in biology and clinical disease. The(More)
Molecular interactions between killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) and their MHC class I ligands play a central role in the regulation of natural killer (NK) cell responses to viral pathogens and tumors. Here we identify Mamu-A1*00201 (Mamu-A*02), a common MHC class I molecule in the rhesus macaque with a canonical Bw6 motif, as a ligand for(More)
BACKGROUND Although metastatic colon cancer is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide, the molecular mechanisms that enable colon cancer cells to metastasize remain unclear. Emerging evidence suggests that metastatic cells develop by usurping transcriptional networks from embryonic stem (ES) cells to facilitate an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT),(More)
Multiple studies suggest that plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are depleted and dysfunctional during human immunodeficiency virus/simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV/SIV) infection, but little is known about pDCs in the gut-the primary site of virus replication. Here, we show that during SIV infection, pDCs were reduced 3--fold in the circulation and(More)